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MAPPA CIBI ET AQUAEEdited bySarah Jacczak / SFSURobert Moore / UNLWilliam Pauley / SFSU AJ Oglesby / UNLMariana Serrano / SFSUJoshua Thorne / UNL

This edition © 2014 Courtesy of The Department of Art + Art HistoryUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln

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Introductionby Joshua Singer

MAPPA CI B

I ET AQUAE

2014

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The publication you are viewing is the collaborative effort of the advanced graphic design classes at San Francisco State University and University of Nebraska-Lincoln in the Spring semester of 2014. The images, narratives really, you see here are the result of a design research project investigating the themes and systemic connections between water for food within the classes’ respective regions.

The project presented readings, exercises and prompts to students to spark research, discourse, and explorations culminating in graphic design artifacts visualizing these themes and systems. This work start-ed with a view of human systems–and its relation to food and water–around the following themes:

MobilityWellnessNourishment EntertainmentEnergySecurityGovernanceWasteInformationShelterCommerceInformation

These systems are highly interconnected, and can be characterized by the flow of physical resources and related services into, out of, and within the bounds of the society. More specifically, students explored how water is related to food production, distribution, processing, manufacturing, disposal etc. From here students developed designs both technical and poetic as a means to stimulate thought around these complex issues and their deep connection to our lives and well being. They visualize as a means to provoke or inform about the fu-ture, problems, utility, sustenance, desire, and fear–to name a few.

The title, Mappa Cibi et Aquae, makes reference to the term Mappa Mundi, the world maps created during medieval Europe. “… mappae mundi were never meant to be used as navigational charts and they make no pretense of showing the relative areas of land and water. Rather, mappae mundi were schematic and were meant to illustrate different principles.”

And so it is a map of food and water, so to speak. Or an atlas of a view of the world (atlases have a point of view, a perspective of their

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own that makes the world in a certain image.) These views are spe-cific, opinionated, and relative, but construct a world nonetheless. It may be familiar at times and uncanny at others, but this is usually necessary in the act of storytelling, and what else is a map or an atlas but a story. The story is simple and complex.

The universe is an incredibly complex place. For us, things can be in-credibly simple. Without food and water there is no universe to speak of. That being said, our universe is an incredibly complex place where food and water play pivotal roles in our social, political, cultural, myth-ological, emotional, physical lives.

The work here attempts to make some sense of it. Not to figure it out, or to even have some answers, but simply to think about it in a visual way offering some observations and provocations. What predomi-nates here, and insightfully so, is a question: What do we make of the crises we have brought upon ourselves? How did we get here? Where is here?

A provocation might sound a bit harsh and might have us think that there is little use when there is so much real and tangible work to be done. But, provocations incite us to consider and to place squarely in front of our eyes (and minds) important thoughts and questions so that we must at least address them in our minds.

Flipping through these pages one will notice a mix of prose and po-etry. Both have their functions and are often good compliments to the other. Facts help us confirm and validate a complex and often opaque world. Poetry helps us make connections that are not so obvious and view the seemingly known world in new ways.

“Mappa Mundi.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, March 25, 2014.http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mappa_mundi&oldid=601215836

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Authors

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San Francisco State UniversityDAI 525 / Advanced Graphic DesignIngrid AlfaroNick BaldassiniJudy ChuTed DavisSarah JaaczakMichelle Lester Chelsea Lowery Mandana Macdougal William PaulyMariana Serrano Foster Stevenson

Joshua Singer, Instructor

University Of Nebraska LincolnGRPH 421 + 426 / Advanced Graphic DesignAlexandria AndersonAlyssa Brunswick Alysia DirksJoseph Gentzler Wendy Huynh Karley Johnson Amanda KesslerRachel Kocarnik Nancy Le TeyAnjulee Leon Kristopher Mangrum Robert Moore Emma O’Connell A.J. Oglesby Randall Owens Paul Raymond Nicholas Sharon Joshua SiscoJoshua Thorne Stacy Asher, Instructor

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TAKE IT BACK

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WASTE

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NOT

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WANT

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NOTS

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Jac

czak

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Alcohol consumed

Water used

Beer Wine Spirits

Beer

Wine

85%

Spirits

0.0

8.5

0.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.55.05.56.06.57.07.58.0

9%6%

9.0

My Thoughts About it. Since the colonization of The United States Of America alcohol has been a major part of culture. The reasons that Alcohol was such a large part of our culture was the lack of access to clean water and the over production of corn. Now in modern times alcohol has become such a large part of our social life and the production has increased immensely. This industries create jobs for millions of americans and help our economy, But they also use tens of millions of gallons of water in the production of the beverage, and that doesn’t even cover all of the water used in sanitization and growing the grains. Is it wise to produce alcohol at theses quantities? Do we actually need to drink alcoholic beverages? Maybe alcohol is the key to our predicament, since we don’t need clean water to produce the beverages. I don’t have the answers but the question does beg to be asked.

Is that really a question?

Alcoholproduction

andconsumption

inthe

United States

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Alcohol consumed

Water used

Beer Wine Spirits

Beer

Wine

85%

Spirits

0.0

8.5

0.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.55.05.56.06.57.07.58.0

9%6%

9.0

My Thoughts About it. Since the colonization of The United States Of America alcohol has been a major part of culture. The reasons that Alcohol was such a large part of our culture was the lack of access to clean water and the over production of corn. Now in modern times alcohol has become such a large part of our social life and the production has increased immensely. This industries create jobs for millions of americans and help our economy, But they also use tens of millions of gallons of water in the production of the beverage, and that doesn’t even cover all of the water used in sanitization and growing the grains. Is it wise to produce alcohol at theses quantities? Do we actually need to drink alcoholic beverages? Maybe alcohol is the key to our predicament, since we don’t need clean water to produce the beverages. I don’t have the answers but the question does beg to be asked.

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1.99 or below

2.00-2.24

2.25-2.49

2.50 or over

Red Hook

Widmer Brothers

Sierra Nevada

Great Basin

High WestWhiskey

Four Peaks

Coors

Santa Fe

Shiner RockTexas Sux

Laughing Dog

Big Sky

Grand Teton

Laughing Sun

Dakota Spirits Nebraska

Templeton Rye

Budwieser

Grain Belt

Goose IslandMiller 3 Floyds

Bells Hoppin’ Frog

Jim Beam

Yuengling

Brooklyn

Tallgrass

Diamond Beer

Southern Comfort

Cat Head

Good People

Cigar City

Sweet Water

Sweet Tea Firefly

Jack Daniel’s

Highland

Laird & company

Dogfish HeadMoonshine

FlyingJager

Samuel Adams

Smuttynose

Allagash

Hill Farmstead

Willimantic

Narragnsett

Consumption of Alcohol In the U.S. and Top Producer By State

Gallons of alcoholper person

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1.99 or below

2.00-2.24

2.25-2.49

2.50 or over

Red Hook

Widmer Brothers

Sierra Nevada

Great Basin

High WestWhiskey

Four Peaks

Coors

Santa Fe

Shiner RockTexas Sux

Laughing Dog

Big Sky

Grand Teton

Laughing Sun

Dakota Spirits Nebraska

Templeton Rye

Budwieser

Grain Belt

Goose IslandMiller 3 Floyds

Bells Hoppin’ Frog

Jim Beam

Yuengling

Brooklyn

Tallgrass

Diamond Beer

Southern Comfort

Cat Head

Good People

Cigar City

Sweet Water

Sweet Tea Firefly

Jack Daniel’s

Highland

Laird & company

Dogfish HeadMoonshine

FlyingJager

Samuel Adams

Smuttynose

Allagash

Hill Farmstead

Willimantic

Narragnsett

Consumption of Alcohol In the U.S. and Top Producer By State

Gallons of alcoholper person

1.99 or below

2.00-2.24

2.25-2.49

2.50 or over

Red Hook

Widmer Brothers

Sierra Nevada

Great Basin

High WestWhiskey

Four Peaks

Coors

Santa Fe

Shiner RockTexas Sux

Laughing Dog

Big Sky

Grand Teton

Laughing Sun

Dakota Spirits Nebraska

Templeton Rye

Budwieser

Grain Belt

Goose IslandMiller 3 Floyds

Bells Hoppin’ Frog

Jim Beam

Yuengling

Brooklyn

Tallgrass

Diamond Beer

Southern Comfort

Cat Head

Good People

Cigar City

Sweet Water

Sweet Tea Firefly

Jack Daniel’s

Highland

Laird & company

Dogfish HeadMoonshine

FlyingJager

Samuel Adams

Smuttynose

Allagash

Hill Farmstead

Willimantic

Narragnsett

Consumption of Alcohol In the U.S. and Top Producer By State

Gallons of alcoholper person

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Sierra Nevada Comparisons from Earth ObservatoryClick on image to view

Drought at State LevelOver the past few years the United States has been rocked by several weather anomalies which then results in multiple regions of the United States in different states of emergency. Recently California is under a severe drought when Nebraska felt a similiar situation two years ago.

Across the page is how two states, Nebraska and California, compare to each other in precipitation. As well as how these two state’s averages compare to the country as a whole. The next pages look at California and Nebraska at two specific points in time. Also indicated are the two states main concern of where they draw water from. For Nebraska this is the Ogallala aquifer that covers nearly the entirety of the state. As for California they rely on the run off from the Sierra Nevada mountains.

Clip from ScienceCast: California DroughtClick above to view

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20082009

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Drought at State LevelBy Amanda Kessler

Nebraska and California Preciptiations(January-December in Inches)

Over the past few years the United States has been rocked by several weather anomalies which then results in multiple regions of the United States in different states of emergency. Recently California is under a severe drought when Nebraska felt a similiar situation two years ago.

Clip from ScienceCast: California DroughtClick above to view

Sierra Nevada Comparisons from Earth ObservatoryClick above to view

Across the page is how two states, Nebraska and California, compare to each other in precipitation. As well as how these two state’s averages compare to the country as a whole. On the next page looks at California and Nebraska at two specific points in time. Also indicated are the two states main concern of where they draw water from. For Nebraska this is the Ogallala aquifer that covers nearly the entirety of the state. As for California they rely on the run off from the Sierra Nevada mountains. California Avg.

Nebraska Precipitation

California Precipitation

Nebraska Avg.

United States Avg.

Drought at State Level

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Nebraska(Septermber 18th, 2012)

Specific Time of Drought in Two States

Dependent on

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California (February 18th, 2014)

Dependent onA

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WAT...ER

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WAT...ER

In the world there is nothing more submissive and weak than water. Yet for attacking that which is hard and strong nothing can surpass it.

Lao Tzu

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California

Apples, Apricots, Artichokes, Arugula, Asparagus, Avocados, Basil, Beets, Belgian Endive, Blackberrries, Blueberries, Boysenberries, Broccoli, Broccoli raab, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes, Cardoons, Carrots, Cauliflower, Celeriac/celery root, Celery, Chard, Cherries, Chickpeas Chil-es, Clementines, Collard greens, Corn, Cucumbers, Edama-me, Eggplant, Escarole, Fava beans, Fennel, Fiddleheads, Figs, Garlic, Gooseberries, green garlic, Grapefruit, Grapes, Green almonds, Green beans, Green Onions, Horseradish,Huckleberries, Artichokes, Kale, Kiwis, Kum-quats, Leeks,Lemongrass, Lemons, Lettuce, Limes, Manda-rins, Mangos, Marionberries, Melons,Mint,Morels, Mush-rooms Mushrooms, Nectarines, summer, Nettles, New Potatoes, Okra, Onions, Oranges, Oranges , Oregano, Parsley, Parsnips, Peaches, Pears, Pea greens, Peas and pea pods, Sweet Peppers, Persimmons, Plums & pluots, Pome-granates, Pommelos, Potatoes, Pumpkins, fall Quinces, Ra-dicchio, Radishes Rapini, Raspberries, Rhubarb, Rosemary, Rutabagas, Sage,Salsify,Scallions, Shallots, Shelling beans, Snowpeas, Sorrel, Spinach, Spring Onions, Squash, Stinging Nettles, Strawberries, SunchokesSweet Onions,Sweet pota-toes, Tangerines,Thyme, Tomatillos, Tomatoes, Turnips, Wa-tercress, Watermelons, Zucchini, Zucchini Blossoms

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W

Asparagus, Basil, Beets, Blackberrries, Blueberries, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Cantaloupes, Carrots, Cauliflower, Celeriac/celery root, Celery, Chard, Cherries, Cilantro, Corn, Cucumbers, Eggplant, Fava beans, Fennel, Garlic Grapes, Green beans, Green Onions/Scallions, Herbs, Kale, Leeks, Lettuce Melons, Morels, Mushrooms, Onions, Parsley, Parsnips, Peaches, Pears, Peas and pea pods,Peppers (sweet), Persimmons, Plums & pluots, Potatoes, Pumpkins, Radishes, Raspberries, Rhubarb, Shelling Beans, Spinach, Squash Strawberries, Tomatoes, Turnips, Watermelons, Zucchini, Zucchini Blossoms

Nebraska

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Half the food produced in the US is wasted between the farm and the fork.

throwing away 1000 gallons of water

throwing away 1000 gallons of milk

This is how much water it takes to make 1 gallon of milk

HOW MUCH DO WE WASTE?

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Pizza in the US uses: 317 GallonsWater Footprint of PizzaHOW MUCH

DO WE WASTE?Pizza dough: 50-60% water

Wheat Flour= 139 gallons

Mozzarella= 158 gallons

Tomato Puree= 19 gallons

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SFSU SUSTAINABILITY

BatteriesBindersBottles & CansCardboardE-wastesGlassGreen WasteHazardous WasteKeysKitchen GreaseLight BulbsMeatl/WoodPaperPersonal Mobile PhonesPlasticRefrigeratorsShredded PaperTextbooksToners/Cartridges

Recycling Resource Center started in 1980s and the student group “eco students” started in 2002.

For more information visit this site:http://sustain.sfsu.edu/index

Recyclable Items

75% Diversion by 2010 with a goal of Zero Waste by 2020!

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UNL RECYCLE

cardboardmixed office papernewspaperbeverage containerssteel cansplastic containerspalletsprinter cartridges toner cartridges waste oil

Recyclable Items

The city of Lincoln joined Nebraska program, WasteCap in 2002. UNL started recycling around 2005.

Go Green for Big Red

For more information visit this site:http://recycling.unl.edu/

City of Lincolns’ goal is to be 34% zero waste by 2040.

only 34% zero waste?

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“CALIFORNIA, SUPPLIER OF NEARLY HALF OF ALL US FRUITS, VEGGIES, AND NUTS IS ON TRACK TO EXPERIENCE THE DRIEST YEAR IN THE PAST HALF MILLENNIUM. FARMS USE ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF THE STATE'S "DEVELOPED WATER," OR WATER THAT'S MOVED FROM ITS NATURAL SOURCE TO OTHER AREAS VIA PIPES AND AQUEDUCTS. PRODUCTION RATES FOR THIRSTY CROPS LIKE ALFALFA AND COTTON HAVE ALREADY DIMINISHED SIGNIFICANTLY IN THE LAST FEW YEARS. BETWEEN 2006 AND 2010 ALONE, THE AMOUNT OF LAND IRRIGATED FOR COTTON FELL BY 46 PERCENT. IN ADDITION TO FARMS, THE DROUGHT AFFECTS MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES. THERE IS SO LITTLE WATER THIS YEAR THAT SOME PLACES ARE IN DANGER OF RUNNING OUT—AND THE LITTLE THAT IS LEFT COULD SOON BECOME UNDRINKABLE BECAUSE OF THE HIGH CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANTS.” M

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KNOWLEDGE

ALTERING THE

ENERGY

EDUCATING THE FUTURE ABOUT THE FUTUREOF OUR PLANET

What can I gain from educational preservation and eco programs?

HEALTH

Brain development starts before the age of 5, when they start kindergarden.

Declarative memory: A childs long-term memory developmentstarts as early as 2 years.

BODYAWARENESS

WHY TO EDUCATE: The earlier the better.

IGNORANCE

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Children can have a new perspective on life by taking classes devoted to the preservation of their

community through water and food. The more they learn, the longer they live.

EXPLOREIGNORE

PROJECT LEARNING TREE

PROJECT WILD

LEARNING GROUND

SKOLANS UTERUM

SCHOOLYARD HABITATS

CAMP REVIVAL

CHILDLIFE PRESERVES

Great Britain

Great Britain

Canada

Sweden

National Wildlife Federation

San Diego, California

Bainbridge Island, Washington

In order to go forward with the future, we must look to

the past for answers.

YOU have to make the choice.

OTHERS THAT HAVE BENEFITED

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BRIDGING THE GAP

NECA

BEEF

HOGS

BEEF

DAIRY

BETWEEN CITIES

The Link Between States

18% - WASHER

30% - TOILET

18% - SHOWER

5% - OTHER20% - FAUCET

9% - LEAKS

GROUNDWATER is ESSENTIAL inNE

of the states public drinking water and nearly all of it’s private water supply are from ground water sources

CONSERVING WATER

Water Usage inCalifornia & Nebraska

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CALIFORNIAolivesricesugar beetsoranges and lemons

NEBRASKAcattlecornwheat, oats, rie, barleyswine

1. Grapes2. Almonds3. Nursery Products4. Lettuce5. Berries

Die each year from a water related disease

3.4 MILLION PEOPLE

THAT IS ALMOST THE ENTIRE CITY OF LOS ANGELES

THE FIRST STEP IS TO INFORM.THE SECOND STEP IS TO EDUCATE.

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corn in food corn in food

fridge

cupboard

freezer

1. Lay’s Au Gratin Chips2. Lay’s Kettle BBQ chips

3. Saltinas corn chips4. Whole wheat bread

5. Minute rice6. Kraft Macaroni and cheese

7. Hamburger helper8. Ramen9. Popcorn

10. Clif bars11. Hard taco shells

12. Pudding cups13. Chewy granola bars

14. Ritz15. Wheat thins16. Coconut oil

17. Peanut butter18. Cappuccino mix

19. Hot chocolate mix20. Dried cranberries

21. Pop tarts22. Coffeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

23. Raspberry honey mustard24. Limon pepper rub

25. Roasted red pepper and onion dip

26. Real maple syrup27. Protein powder

28. PAM29. Pancake mix

30. Powdered sugar31. Sugar in the raw

32. Refried beans33. Chef boyardee34. Canned corn

35. Canned green beans36. Chicken noodle soup

37. Hot picante sauce38. Mild picante sauce

39. Black beans40. Pinto beans41. Soy protein

42. Canned carrots43. Apple cider mix44. Lasagna noodles45. Spaghetti noodles

46. Penne noodles47. Oatmeal

48. Rotel49. Potatoes50. Onions

51. Red Onions52. Vegetable oil

1. Chocolate chips2. White chocolate chips

3. Chocolate stars4. Heath chips

5. Honey ham sandwich meat6. Turkey sandwich meat

7. Old bananas8. Cheese

9. Tater tots10. Frozen vegetables11. Whipped cream

12. Ground beef13. Ground turkey

14. Chicken15. Ground turkey16. Totinos pizza

17. Vanilla ice cream18. Ice cream cake

19. Bread20. Pie crusts21. Pita bread

22. Frozen mangoes and strawberries23. PowerIce Popsicle

1. Strawberries2. Oranges3. Apples

4.Green pepper5. Red pepper

6. Roma tomato7. Blueberries8. Blackberries

9. Green leaf lettuce10. Almond milk (vitamin E)

11. Orange juice12. Milk

13. Miracle whip14. Ketchup15. Mustard16. Soy sauce

17. Parmesan cheese18. Chipotle marinade

19. Mayo 20. Ranch

21. Italian dressing22. Smoky mustard23. Strawberry jelly

24. Grape jelly25. Sriracha

26. Dorothy Lynch27. Italian

28. Plum syrup29. Relish

30. Cookies BBQ31. Grease

32. Irish cream33. Maple syrup

34. Coffee creamer - Caramel35. Coffee creamer - pumpkin

36. Chocolate syrup37. Salsa38. Pho

39. Biscuits40. Ground beef

41. Bagels42. Yoplait yogurt

43. Ginger mustard44. Eggs

45. Pasta sauce46. Velveeta

47. Sour cream48. Cinnamon rolls

49. Egg whites50. Margarine51. Blue moon

52. Totinos pizza53. Woodchuck

54. High life55. Diet co*ke

56. Yellow tail Moscato

57. Yellow tail Sweet White Roo

58. Yellow tail Strawberry59. Boulevard Wheat

60. Little smokies61. Colby jack cheese62. Mozzarella cheese

63. Tortillas64.Honey ham sandwich

meat65. Turkey sandwich meat

66. Cream cheese67. Sliced cheese

68. Spinach69. Carrots70. Onion

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corn in food corn in food

fridge

cupboard

freezer

1. Lay’s Au Gratin Chips2. Lay’s Kettle BBQ chips

3. Saltinas corn chips4. Whole wheat bread

5. Minute rice6. Kraft Macaroni and cheese

7. Hamburger helper8. Ramen9. Popcorn

10. Clif bars11. Hard taco shells

12. Pudding cups13. Chewy granola bars

14. Ritz15. Wheat thins16. Coconut oil

17. Peanut butter18. Cappuccino mix

19. Hot chocolate mix20. Dried cranberries

21. Pop tarts22. Coffeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

23. Raspberry honey mustard24. Limon pepper rub

25. Roasted red pepper and onion dip

26. Real maple syrup27. Protein powder

28. PAM29. Pancake mix

30. Powdered sugar31. Sugar in the raw

32. Refried beans33. Chef boyardee34. Canned corn

35. Canned green beans36. Chicken noodle soup

37. Hot picante sauce38. Mild picante sauce

39. Black beans40. Pinto beans41. Soy protein

42. Canned carrots43. Apple cider mix44. Lasagna noodles45. Spaghetti noodles

46. Penne noodles47. Oatmeal

48. Rotel49. Potatoes50. Onions

51. Red Onions52. Vegetable oil

1. Chocolate chips2. White chocolate chips

3. Chocolate stars4. Heath chips

5. Honey ham sandwich meat6. Turkey sandwich meat

7. Old bananas8. Cheese

9. Tater tots10. Frozen vegetables11. Whipped cream

12. Ground beef13. Ground turkey

14. Chicken15. Ground turkey16. Totinos pizza

17. Vanilla ice cream18. Ice cream cake

19. Bread20. Pie crusts21. Pita bread

22. Frozen mangoes and strawberries23. PowerIce Popsicle

1. Strawberries2. Oranges3. Apples

4.Green pepper5. Red pepper

6. Roma tomato7. Blueberries8. Blackberries

9. Green leaf lettuce10. Almond milk (vitamin E)

11. Orange juice12. Milk

13. Miracle whip14. Ketchup15. Mustard16. Soy sauce

17. Parmesan cheese18. Chipotle marinade

19. Mayo 20. Ranch

21. Italian dressing22. Smoky mustard23. Strawberry jelly

24. Grape jelly25. Sriracha

26. Dorothy Lynch27. Italian

28. Plum syrup29. Relish

30. Cookies BBQ31. Grease

32. Irish cream33. Maple syrup

34. Coffee creamer - Caramel35. Coffee creamer - pumpkin

36. Chocolate syrup37. Salsa38. Pho

39. Biscuits40. Ground beef

41. Bagels42. Yoplait yogurt

43. Ginger mustard44. Eggs

45. Pasta sauce46. Velveeta

47. Sour cream48. Cinnamon rolls

49. Egg whites50. Margarine51. Blue moon

52. Totinos pizza53. Woodchuck

54. High life55. Diet co*ke

56. Yellow tail Moscato

57. Yellow tail Sweet White Roo

58. Yellow tail Strawberry59. Boulevard Wheat

60. Little smokies61. Colby jack cheese62. Mozzarella cheese

63. Tortillas64.Honey ham sandwich

meat65. Turkey sandwich meat

66. Cream cheese67. Sliced cheese

68. Spinach69. Carrots70. Onion

1.

1.

1.

11.

11.

11.

21.

21.

31.

31.

41.

41.

51.

61.

51.

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2.

2.

2.

12.

12.

12.

22.

22.

32.

32.

42.

42.

52.

62.

52.

22.

3.

3.

3.

13.

13.

13.

23.

23.

33.

33.

43.

43.

53.

63.

23.

4.

4.

4.

14.

14.

14.

24.

24.

34.

34.

44.

44.

54.

64.

5.

5.

5.

15.

15.

15.

25.

25.

35.

35.

45.

45.

55.

65.

6.

6.

6.

16.

16.

16.

26.

26.

36.

36.

46.

46.

56.

66.

7.

7.

7.

17.

17.

17.

27.

27.

37.

37.

47.

47.

57.

67.

8.

8.

8.

18.

18.

18.

28.

28.

38.

38.

48.

48.

58.

68.

9.

9.

9.

19.

19.

19.

29.

29.

39.

39.

49.

49.

59.

69.

10.

10.

10.

20.

20.

20.

30.

30.

40.

40.

50.

50.

60.

70.

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“Get Big or Get Out”Earl Butz was Secretary of Agriculture from 1971 -1976. He made dramatic changes to policy governing the amount of produce grown in the U.S. This resulted in the overproduction of corn, and ushered in a new era of cheap, corn based foods. Some saw this as a blessing, others a curse. We spend a lot less of our income on food as we did decades ago, but the food we buy is often unhealthy.

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WHO IS USINGYOUR Maize

An ear of corn averages 800 kernels in 16 rows.

A pound of corn consists of approximately 1,300 kernels.

100 bushels of corn produces approximately 7,280,000 kernels.

Each year, a single U.S. farmer provides food and fiber for 129 people - 97 in the U.S. and 32 overseas.

http://www.campsilos.org/mod3/students/index.shtml

Farming/Ranching

Other75%

25%

Califo

rnia Land Usage

5 Million Dollarsin AgriculturalCash Recipts=

http://www.campsilos.org/mod3/students/index.shtmlhttp://www.farmland.org/documents/AFT-CA-Agricultural-Land-Loss-Basic-Facts_11-23-09.pdf

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WHO IS USINGYOUR Maize

An ear of corn averages 800 kernels in 16 rows.

A pound of corn consists of approximately 1,300 kernels.

100 bushels of corn produces approximately 7,280,000 kernels.

Each year, a single U.S. farmer provides food and fiber for 129 people - 97 in the U.S. and 32 overseas.

http://www.campsilos.org/mod3/students/index.shtml

Farming/Ranching

Other75%

25%

Califo

rnia Land Usage

5 Million Dollarsin AgriculturalCash Recipts=

http://www.campsilos.org/mod3/students/index.shtmlhttp://www.farmland.org/documents/AFT-CA-Agricultural-Land-Loss-Basic-Facts_11-23-09.pdf

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Corn for grain production, 2013 – 1,623,500,000 bushelsCorn Exports, 2012 – $1,149,600,000

For the 2012-13 marketing year (September 1, 2012 through August 31, 2013), it is estimated that 82% of Nebraska’s 1.292 billion bushels produced during the year will be used within the state, with just 18% shipped out of state, or in residual or carryout.

WHO IS USINGYOUR

Nebraska Department of Agriculture websitehttp://www.nebraskacorn.org/main-navigation/corn-production-uses/use-stats/http://www.nebraskacorn.org/main-navigation/corn-production-uses/uses-of-corn/

Corn3Placerd

(U.S.)

FarmingRanching

Other9%

46% 45%

Neb

raska Land Usage

5 Million Dollarsin Agricultural Cash Recipts

=

In the U.S., corn production measures more than 2 times that of any other crop.

California being the largest market for Nebraska corn, taking about 145 million bushels of Nebraska corn mostly for livestock and poultry last year.

Mappa Cibi et Aquae - [PDF Document] (77)

Corn for grain production, 2013 – 1,623,500,000 bushelsCorn Exports, 2012 – $1,149,600,000

For the 2012-13 marketing year (September 1, 2012 through August 31, 2013), it is estimated that 82% of Nebraska’s 1.292 billion bushels produced during the year will be used within the state, with just 18% shipped out of state, or in residual or carryout.

WHO IS USINGYOUR

Nebraska Department of Agriculture websitehttp://www.nebraskacorn.org/main-navigation/corn-production-uses/use-stats/http://www.nebraskacorn.org/main-navigation/corn-production-uses/uses-of-corn/

Corn3Placerd

(U.S.)

FarmingRanching

Other9%

46% 45%

Neb

raska Land Usage

5 Million Dollarsin Agricultural Cash Recipts

=

In the U.S., corn production measures more than 2 times that of any other crop.

California being the largest market for Nebraska corn, taking about 145 million bushels of Nebraska corn mostly for livestock and poultry last year.

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1951 1970Since the early 1800’s, agriculture has boomed, and allowed us to sustain more people with even longer lifespans. In the 1950’s a noticable spike in population along with spikes in food production and water usage show a correlation that continues on even today. With the growth in population comes the consumption of more water, and the production of more food.

A steady incline in water usage can be seen as population rises. With each spike, water usage and food production spike as well. In the 1970’s the booming farm industry sets off a spike in food produc-tion. Thanks to Earl Butz, the Secretary of Agriculture, the overproduction of farmed goods had really taken off, and begins to make food less nutritious. After this, the food industry starts to lead the curve and begins controlling when these spikes occur. This can be seen again in the early 1980’s when we begin massive amounts of food exports to other nations. With an over abundance of food, people no longer

worry about not getting fed and towards the end of the baby boomers had made the population rise more than 75 million alone. It goes without saying that spikes in water usage fallowed. Then there was a small decline in the rate of our population growth due to the exporting of our food and the decline of the baby boomers. This also correlates with the Reagan Economic Boom from 1982 to 1989. Some say this was the strongest boom in history and still has effects on the economy today. Lead-ing into the 1990’s things begin to even out slightly. Water consumption and population rise steadily.

http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/water/a_wateruse.html

Food Production,Population and Water Usage.

http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/water/a_wateruse.html

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1983 1990 2012

Overpopulated, Overproduced, Overconsumed,

Though the 90’s may have not contributed to producing more, it was the longest period of peace and technological advancment in history. This meant the the lifespan average grew expo-nentialy. This was due to medical advancment and the absense of war. Now with all the children from the baby booming years becoming adults, our active population had never been higher. This lead to another increase in water consumption as well as a booming trade industry. Food was being produced faster and faster, and after the North American Free Trade Agreement, quite a bit of our food was being exported to Canada and Mexico. Soon after, the stability of our economy started to fall, and the most recent decline in economic

growth happens in the 2000’s. With technology on the rise, and the population at a steady incline, water usage and food production really hadn’t ever stopped since the 1950’s. In the last decade, advancments in medical and productive agriculture have started to create another spike. With an increase in Genetically Modified foods, and the mass overproduction of farmed goods, food has come to the lowest point of nutritional value in history. “The Dilution Effect” where the nutrition of the original food is spread out over the mass amount made through modification, has lead us to produce food with empty calories, and less of what our bodies need to be healthy.

Gwynn Guilford and Ritchie King - http://qz.com/93900Gwynn Guilford and Ritchie King - http://qz.com/93900

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http://www.apha.org/advocacy/policy/policysearch/default.htm?id=1361

Food Thenprotein

fiber

Vitamins

Vitamins

Vitamins

calories

calories

calories

fiber

fiber

protein

protein Genetic modification is making our modern food less nutri-tious than it used to be, according to a report given to MomsAcrossAmerica4 by an employee of De Dell Seed Company (Cana-da's only non-GMO corn seed company).

It offers a stunning picture of the nutritional differences between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM corn. Clearly, the former is NOT equivalent to the latter, which is the very premise by which genetically modified crops were approved in the first place.

Current production decisions result in food processors’ using artiffcially cheap high fructose corn syrup and hydrogenated soy oil in most processed foods, helping to make sweets and fats convenient and inexpensive for consumers. In addition, 60% of the US corn crop and 47% of the soy crop are used to produce grain feed for livestock,74 not counting what is needed to feed poultry and fish. That figure also does not include the substantial amount of domestically produced corn and soybeans exported for use as animal feed overseas. Artiffcially low grain prices represent a sizeable benefit to the industrial meat industry.

Here’s a small sampling of the nutritional differences found in this 2012 nutritional analysis on modern corn:

Calcium: GMO corn = 14 ppm / Non-GMO corn = 6,130 ppm (437 times more)

Magnesium: GMO corn = 2 ppm / Non-GMO corn = 113 ppm (56 times more)

Manganese: GMO corn = 2 ppm / Non-GMO corn = 14 ppm (7 times more)

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Food Now

Vitamins

Vitamins

Vitamins

calories

calories

calories

fiber

fiber

fiber

protein

protein

protein

“Throughout the ages, our farming ancestors have chosen the least bitter plants to grow in their gardens. It is now known that many of the most bene-ficial phytonutrients have a bitter, sour or astringent taste. Second, early farmers favored plants that were relatively low in fiber and high in sugar, starch and oil. These energy-dense plants were pleasurable to eat and provided the calories needed to fuel a strenuous lifestyle. The more palat-able our fruits and vegetables became, however, the less advantageous they were for our health.” - New York Times

Yet over 85 percent of our food is made using Genetic Modification! Mainly for increasing yeilds, and no modifications have been made for nutritional increases or health reasons...

Methods used to increase crop yield (including planting crops closely, soil tilling, and planting the same crop year after year in the same field) can deplete the soil nutrients available for uptake and therefore lower crop nutritional quality. In addition, farmers typically use seeds bred for high yield, pest resistance, and other qualities rather than for nutritional value. One study found declines in key nutrients in many foods between 1950 and 1999 and attributed them to the choices of crop varieties planted.

By 2050, the population will jump to 9 billion. The question is, can the machine continue to keep up?The answer is: not really. Already, demand for food is straining the planet’s ability to produce it, as the Earth Policy Institute highlights. Meat production has increased more than 600% since 1950, and demand certain types of meat are already taxing the limits of the Earth’s ability to produce them!

http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/06/11/modern-food-nutritional-content.aspx

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NEBRASKA:LEADER IN GROUNDWATERIRRIGATIONby Joshua Thorne

With the current drought and conditions in California, let us take another look at our greatest water source in Nebraska. The Ogallala / High Plains Aquifer Accounts for 30% of the nation’s groundwater use for irrigation.

O G A L L A L A A Q U I F E R

Areas with saturated thickness of 400-1200 feet

Reaches to 8 separate states

Provides drinking water to over 80% of people who live within its regions

Areas with water-levels in decline 100+ feet in 2011

Covers 174,000 square miles

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NEBRASKA:LEADER IN GROUNDWATERIRRIGATIONby Joshua Thorne

With the current drought and conditions in California, let us take another look at our greatest water source in Nebraska. The Ogallala / High Plains Aquifer Accounts for 30% of the nation’s groundwater use for irrigation.

O G A L L A L A A Q U I F E R

Areas with saturated thickness of 400-1200 feet

Reaches to 8 separate states

Provides drinking water to over 80% of people who live within its regions

Areas with water-levels in decline 100+ feet in 2011

Covers 174,000 square miles

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WE KNOW THE VALUE OF WATER WHEN THE WELL RUNS DRY+Benjamin Franklin

“The state has essentially reached its maximum development limits...there is no more development frontier.From now on, Nebraskans, from the individual water user up through our policy arena, will need to wisely manage our water resources for a sustainable future.”Bruce Johnson, 2009 University of Nebraska-Lincoln agricultural economist

“Nevertheless, the issues of intergenerational equity should be addressed now when there is less pressure to decide one way or another.Michael Glantz, 1989

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2013: Irrigated 7.17 millions acres by groundwater

2013: Highest groundwater withdrawals out of the 8 states

2013: Crops sales of $3,543,800,000 from groundwater

2013: 16,000 farms, 93.68% of all farms are irrigated

2009: Three out of four irrigated acres use center-pivot irrigation

2007: Counties with 100,000 to 330,000 irrigated acres

2009: NE has most irrigated acres in the nation

CA declined due to drought and water demands

TX declined due to overuse of Ogallala resources

S T A T E O F N E B R A S K A

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4,093 total animalsNE

ORGANIC LIVESTOCK (COWS, PIGS, SHEEP)

81,831 total animalsCA

3,362,954 total animalsNE

10,777,122 total animalsCA

ORGANIC CHICKENS AND OTHER POULTRY

62,387 total acresCA

44,725 total acresNE

ORGANIC GRAIN ACREAGE

951,356 total acresCA

NEORGANIC PASTURE AND CROPLAND

ORGANIC FARMINGA COMPARISON BETWEEN CALIFORNIA AND NEBRASKA

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4,093 total animalsNE

ORGANIC LIVESTOCK (COWS, PIGS, SHEEP)

81,831 total animalsCA

3,362,954 total animalsNE

10,777,122 total animalsCA

ORGANIC CHICKENS AND OTHER POULTRY

62,387 total acresCA

44,725 total acresNE

ORGANIC GRAIN ACREAGE

951,356 total acresCA

NEORGANIC PASTURE AND CROPLAND

It is easy to tell from this infographic, that California is much more conscious than Nebraska about farming sustainably (can also be called farming organically). Why is this important? It’s important because sustainable farming uses less water, less harmful materials (such as pesticides and other chemicals), and usually has a greater dollar output than large industrial farms.

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ORGANIC FARMINGWHY SMALLER-SCALE FARMING IS BETTER

Large farms (ones with hundreds of acres) are almost always industrial, and they have serious negative effects on the environment. 41% of pollution in lake water and 48% of pollution in rivers and streams can be attributed to industrial agriculture. Industrial farms can cause erosion, deforestation, contaminated soil and contaminated water. Saving water from being wasted or contaminated is a huge reason that Nebraska, (along with every other state that isn’t California) needs to strive to have smaller, more sustainable and environmentally friendly farming.

percentof Nebraskans

are farmers

percent1.5

of Californiansare farmers

percentof the worlds agricultural land is certiied organic farmland

0.9

FARMS 500 ACRES OR LARGER

NE CA

4110percent percent

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percentof Nebraskans

are farmers

percent1.5

of Californiansare farmers

percentof the worlds agricultural land is certiied organic farmland

0.9

FARMS 500 ACRES OR LARGER

NE CA

4110percent percent

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COFFEE IS KILLING THE EARTH

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THE COST OF YOUR CUP

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water footprint of a latte

143liters to

grow the coffee

7.5liters to

grow the sugar

49.5liters to

feed the cows that make the

milk

2.5liters to make the plastic lid

0.1liters for the water itself

5.5liters for the cup and sleeve

Drinking coffee is horriblefor the planetOr at least it can be if consumers are blind to the toll it is taking on our water supply.

Maybe the dramatics weren’t necessary.Coffee is the best, and there is no denying it. However each cup you drink can

cost up to 200 liters of water. Is it starting to sound like you don’t need another

today? If you do, that’s okay. Just remember to drink responsibly.

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HOW TO HELP

Quitting coffee not an option?Good news; you have choices. Here are a few simple things you can do to lower your coffee footprint.

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Carry a reusable cup

Shop local

Avoid Styrofoam

Compost your grounds

By replacing your daily disposable cup with a reusable one, you will

create 23 lbs less waste per year than if you use the paper or

Styrofoam cup options.

Americans are the leading consumers of coffee in the world, but

coffee is produced primarily outside of the US. Your coffee most

likely traveled over an ocean to get to you. Shopping local

requires less travel and in turn less water to get your cup to you.

When you forget your cup at home, try for the paper or “to stay” options. Styrofoam

will stay in landfills for up to 500 years, so the less we put there, the better.

According to an Oregon State study, “coffee grounds are an excellent nitrogen source for composting.” If you don’t have

the facilities to compost, call your local cafe. Most compost their

grounds (Starbucks included) and will likely take yours!

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COFFEE SHOPS+ SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

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WATER FLAVORINGWater flavoring is an invention of this decade, but has skyrocketed in popularity within just a few years. These compact bottles market themselves on being a tasty and healthy alternative to sodas and other sugar filled drinks, but after digging deeper, we have learned that many of them are full of additives and preservatives. How is it possible that something so unhealthy is getting so much praise for being “good” for us? Our culture and marketing.

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$141.4 million/year$3.99/bottle

Acesulfame Potassium TRUTHABOUTWATER

The

FLAVORING

Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 40 and Yellow 6 cause cancer in animals.

3.99/bottle

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This artificial sweetener is 200 times sweeter than sugar and causes nausea, headaches, liver problems, mood disruption, hypoglyce-mia, and possibly cancer

Acesulfame Potassium

SuracraloseNegatively alters gut microflora and absorp-tion of nutrients. Additionally, there is con-cern that can cause bowel and kidney distur-bance and increased risk of tumor growth.

Propylene GlycolUsed in the production of polyester, an-tifreeze, fake smog, and smoke. Animal studies indicate may cause serious health conditions when consumed over time.

Potassium SorbateSynthetic composition can lead to allergic reactions, diarrhea, nausea and nutrient loss in food.

Citric AcidPotassium Citrate Sodium CitrateAspartame Magnesium OxideRed 40Blue 1

Soy LecithinArtificial ColoringYellow 5BHAWaterCalcium Disodium

Magnesium ChlorideCalcium ChlorideVitamin B3VB6VB12Potassium BenzoateYellow 6

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WATER WELLNESS / CLEANLINESSWATER WELLNESS / CLEANLINESS

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Chemical Percentages Found In Water

Fluoride

FLUORIDE( 55% - 75%)

(0 .4% - 0 .8%)(0 .20% - 1%)

N E B R A S K A A R E A

C A L I F O R N I A A R E A

P E R C E N TA G E S

(0% - 8%)(0% - 1 .5%)

(0% - 1 .5%) (10% - 12 .5%)

(4% - 14%)(0% - 1 .5%)

(0% - 3%)

MERCURY

LEAD

CHLORINE

ARSENICCOLIFORMS

DIOXIN

PERCHLORATE

COPPER

MtBE

Dioxin

0.24%

1.32%

Coliforms

0.11%

1.08%

MtBE

1.21%

1.15%

Copper

0.12%

1.96%

Perchlorate

0.90%

1.22%

Mercury

0.72%

0.67%

Lead

4.20%

6.80%

Chlorine

12.7%

10.8%

Arsenic

8.60%

6.30%

Nebraska 71.2%

68.7%

Nebraska

California

California

Chemicals such as MtBE are commonly seen/used in the fuel of rockets and instruments of flight. Minerals like Lead, Uranium and Arsenic(s) have also been recorded in bodies of water in both Nebraska and California. These chemicals often lead to the development of cancer and fatal diseases. In moderation, Fluoride is good for teeth development, however in excess , this chemical can cause serious internal problems such as ulcers, diarrhea, and intestinal damages.

Chemical Percentages Found In Water

Fluoride

FLUORIDE( 55% - 75%)

(0 .4% - 0 .8%)(0 .20% - 1%)

N E B R A S K A A R E A

C A L I F O R N I A A R E A

P E R C E N TA G E S

(0% - 8%)(0% - 1 .5%)

(0% - 1 .5%) (10% - 12 .5%)

(4% - 14%)(0% - 1 .5%)

(0% - 3%)

MERCURY

LEAD

CHLORINE

ARSENICCOLIFORMS

DIOXIN

PERCHLORATE

COPPER

MtBE

Dioxin

0.24%

1.32%

Coliforms

0.11%

1.08%

MtBE

1.21%

1.15%

Copper

0.12%

1.96%

Perchlorate

0.90%

1.22%

Mercury

0.72%

0.67%

Lead

4.20%

6.80%

Chlorine

12.7%

10.8%

Arsenic

8.60%

6.30%

Nebraska 71.2%

68.7%

Nebraska

California

California

Chemicals such as MtBE are commonly seen/used in the fuel of rockets and instruments of flight. Minerals like Lead, Uranium and Arsenic(s) have also been recorded in bodies of water in both Nebraska and California. These chemicals often lead to the development of cancer and fatal diseases. In moderation, Fluoride is good for teeth development, however in excess , this chemical can cause serious internal problems such as ulcers, diarrhea, and intestinal damages.

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A Nebraska 66 P-Dichlorobenzene

B Cal i fornia 67 1,2-Dichloroethane

68 1,1-Dichloroethylene

01 Fluoride 34 Endothal l 70 T-1,2-Dichloroethylene

33 Carbofuran

32 Epichlorohydrin

31 Giardia Lamblia

30 Beryl l ium

69 C-1,2-Dichloroethylene

09 Nitrate 42 2,4,5-TP (Si lvex)

10 Dalapon 43 Asbestos 76 Alpha Part ic les

17 Selenium 50 Glyphosate

26 Antimony 62 Total Tr ihalomethane(s)

61 Haloacetic Acid (HAA5)

60 Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)

59 2,Dibromo-Chloropropane

05 Dioxin 38 Methoxychlor 74 1,1,2-Tr ichloroethane

13 Nitr i te 46 Toxaphene 79 Beta Part ic les

21 Turbidite(s ) 54 Oxamyl (Vydate)

02 Mercury 35 Cyanide 71 Dichloromethane

18 Thal l ium 51 Heptachlor 81 MtBE

27 Cryptosporidium 63 Vinyl Chlor ide(s )

06 Copper 39 Coli forms / E.Col i 75 Trichloroethylene

14 Nitrogen 47 Di(2-ethylhexyl ) Adipate 80 Radium 228

22 Cadmium 55 Hexachlorocyclopentadine

03 Lead 36 Pentachlorophenol 72 1,2-Dichloropropane

11 Chlor ine Dioxide 44 Lindane 77 Photon Emission(s )

19 Diquat 52 Polychlor inated Biphenyls 82 Uranium

28 Dinoseb 64 Xylenes ( total )

07 Perchlorate 40 Picloram

15 Chromium (total ) 48 Di(2-ethylhexyl ) Phthalate

23 Ethylbenzene 56 Chlordane

04 Chlor ine 37 Carbon Tetrachlor ide 73 1,2,4-Tr ichlorobenzene

12 Chloramine(s) 45 Endrin 78 Radium 226

20 Acrylamide 53 Arsenic

29 Legionel la 65 O-Dichlorobenzene

08 Chlor i te 41 Styrene

16 Barium 49 Tetrachloroethylene

24 Bromate 57 Chlorobenzene

25 Atrazine 58 Benzene

CONTAMINANTS

E.Coli

Mappa Cibi et Aquae - [PDF Document] (125)

A B

1

8281

8079

7877

42

76

75

7473

7271

70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 5857

5655

54

5352

5150

4948

4746

45

4344

41403938

3736

3435

3332

3130

2928

2726

252423222119181716

14131211

20

15

109

87

65

43

2

Ro

be

rt M

oo

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UN

L

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Ted

Dav

is /

SF

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INFLAMMATORYBOWELDISORDER

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. T h e two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are

ULCERATIVE COLITIS and CROHN’S DISEASE.

It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million persons in the United States suffer from these D I S E A S E S .

INFLAMMATORY

BOWELDISORDER

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INFLAMMATORYBOWELDISORDER

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/ibd/ http://www.webmd.com/ibd-crohns-disease/ss/slideshow-inflammatory-bowel-overview

INFLAMMATORY

BOWELDISORDER

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CRO

HN

S &

CO

LITI

S

LINCOLN

OMAHA

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SAN JOSE

FREMONT

VISALIA

PALTO ALTO

WALNUT CREEK

SANTA ROSAROSEVILLE

SANTA BARBARA

LAGUNA HILLS

WESTLAKE VILLAGE

MENIFEE

SAN FRANCISCO x2

GLENDORATARZANA

REDON-

LOS ALAMI-Source: http://www.ccfa.org/living-with-crohns-colitis/find-a-support-group/

Kri

s M

agn

um

/ U

NL

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NOPE.C

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REMMEBER...

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WHEN?

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U

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CALIFORNIA

Junk food, like seen, is illegal in California, Massachusetts & New York schools.

The Cobb salad was invented in Hollywood in the 1930s. Often, it is prepared in an ornate display before serving.

TOMATOES1781 AD

BLUE CHEESE79 AD

AVOCADO5000 BC

WINE7000 BC

FRENCH FRIES7000 BC

RUNZA1949 AD

HEINZE1876 AD

SODA POP1938 AD

BACON1963 AD

LETTUCE5000 BC

HARDBOILED EGG3000 BC

TURKEYDOMESTICATED

IN 3200 BC

NEBRASKA

Mappa Cibi et Aquae - [PDF Document] (137)

CALIFORNIA

Junk food, like seen, is illegal in California, Massachusetts & New York schools.

The Cobb salad was invented in Hollywood in the 1930s. Often, it is prepared in an ornate display before serving.

TOMATOES1781 AD

BLUE CHEESE79 AD

AVOCADO5000 BC

WINE7000 BC

FRENCH FRIES7000 BC

RUNZA1949 AD

HEINZE1876 AD

SODA POP1938 AD

BACON1963 AD

LETTUCE5000 BC

HARDBOILED EGG3000 BC

TURKEYDOMESTICATED

IN 3200 BC

NEBRASKA

Mappa Cibi et Aquae - [PDF Document] (138)

BC

heeseblue che

blueberriesb

lemons

pretzels

spinach

coffee

AD

4000

1700

700

400

312

1877

1887

1890

1914

1970

1972

1974

BC1987

1993

2000

AD

FOODWATER

10000

8000

7000

6500

5000

4000

3600

3000

2000

1500

1200

1000

900

700

600

500

400

200

80

100

200

400

600

800

pancakes, waffles

pie

jelly, jam, dough-nuts, hot dogs,pineapples

salsa, brussel sprouts, skim milk

pumpkin pie, lemonade, modernice cream

french fries, casseroles mashedpotatoes, soda water, lollipops

ice cream cones, corn syrup, softdrinks, corn starch, breakfastcereal, conversation hearts,Welches grape juice, milk shakes,

. Pepper, co*ke, Pizza, peanutbutter, +sourdough bread

eoes, hostess cupcakes, Girlcout cookies, twizzlers, sliced

ad, Ritz, canned soda, cheerios,nutella, Betty Crocker cake mix,smoothies, / Kool-Aid, / Reuben Sandwich, / Dorothy Lynch,/ Runza, + cobb salad

diet soda, TV dinners, ramen noodles, pop tarts, HFCS, chickennuggets, red bull, grape tomatoes,McDonald's, / Bakers Candie/ Valentinos, + Ranch

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900-1950

1950-2000

flour, bread, soup, almondsad, soup, a

wheatwheat

wine/beer, lardard

cattle domestication, apples

honey, lettuce, quinoa, yogurt,squash, avocados, potatoes,milk, cucumbers, sour cream

watermelon, oranges,pomegranates

popcorn

butter, peas, carrots,onions, garlic, ice cream

mustard, peaches,noodles, marshmallowliquorice, ham

chocolate, vanilla

sugar

pickles, mangoes, oats

tomatoes

cinnamon

bananas

artichokes

appetizers

asparagus, rhubarb

Ice cream began with the Chinese who flavored ice. However, the kind we enjoy today was most likely inventedin Italy.

25% of the Milwaukee residence become ill from

Cryptospoidium, a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal

illness and is transmitted by ingestion of

contaminated human or animal wastes

invented in+ California/ Nebraska

HOW OLDIS YOUR FOOD?a look at the evolution of foods we eat today,specifically in California and Nebraska

Tune into, Mark Bitman’s TED talk, What’sWrong With What We Eat, for more insight

India as boilingas

Crete, plumbers make a sewage and drainage system to create the first flushable toilet

Greeks have hot and cold showers intheir gyms

Hippocrates, a Greek Physician, recommends clean water by boiling and filtering

Roman aqueducts start bringing 1.2 billion liters of water a day a distance of 57 milesm

uis Pasteur develops theory that germsLouis uouspread diseasespspread diseas

first statewide study of water pollution inses at MITsthe United

first water treatment to reducter treatmencontaminationn

drinking water standards are establisheed for the US

Nixon establishes the EPA, an agency protecting air, water and land

Clean Water Act establishes a proregulate discharges of pollutant in USwater

rinking Water Act est drinking water standards

Water Quality Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate storm water runoff

Estimated 100 people die from contamination of public water in Milwaukee

Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsinare positive for mercury in 90% of samples. Fish consumption advisorieswere orderd in Great Lake States.

spinach

DD

00

00

00

80

100

2

400

p

ones, corn syrupcorn starch

real, conveWelchesDr. Pbu

oreoes, hostess cupcakes, GirlScobread, Ritz, canned soda, chnutella, Betty Crocker cake mix,smoothies, / Kool-Aid, / Reuben Sandwich, / Dorothy/ Runza, + cobb salad

rs, ramFCS, ch

tomatoes,dies,

00-1950

950-200

ows,

a

goes

namon

bathat germs

de study of wasthe United States at e

1914

educe

drinking water stanestablishe

1972

es the EPA, anng air, water and

Clean

1974

s a program to of pollutant in US

Safe Drinking Wa

Mappa Cibi et Aquae - [PDF Document] (139)

BC

heeseblue che

blueberriesb

lemons

pretzels

spinach

coffee

AD

4000

1700

700

400

312

1877

1887

1890

1914

1970

1972

1974

BC1987

1993

2000

AD

FOODWATER

10000

8000

7000

6500

5000

4000

3600

3000

2000

1500

1200

1000

900

700

600

500

400

200

80

100

200

400

600

800

pancakes, waffles

pie

jelly, jam, dough-nuts, hot dogs,pineapples

salsa, brussel sprouts, skim milk

pumpkin pie, lemonade, modernice cream

french fries, casseroles mashedpotatoes, soda water, lollipops

ice cream cones, corn syrup, softdrinks, corn starch, breakfastcereal, conversation hearts,Welches grape juice, milk shakes,

. Pepper, co*ke, Pizza, peanutbutter, +sourdough bread

eoes, hostess cupcakes, Girlcout cookies, twizzlers, sliced

ad, Ritz, canned soda, cheerios,nutella, Betty Crocker cake mix,smoothies, / Kool-Aid, / Reuben Sandwich, / Dorothy Lynch,/ Runza, + cobb salad

diet soda, TV dinners, ramen noodles, pop tarts, HFCS, chickennuggets, red bull, grape tomatoes,McDonald's, / Bakers Candie/ Valentinos, + Ranch

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900-1950

1950-2000

flour, bread, soup, almondsad, soup, a

wheatwheat

wine/beer, lardard

cattle domestication, apples

honey, lettuce, quinoa, yogurt,squash, avocados, potatoes,milk, cucumbers, sour cream

watermelon, oranges,pomegranates

popcorn

butter, peas, carrots,onions, garlic, ice cream

mustard, peaches,noodles, marshmallowliquorice, ham

chocolate, vanilla

sugar

pickles, mangoes, oats

tomatoes

cinnamon

bananas

artichokes

appetizers

asparagus, rhubarb

Ice cream began with the Chinese who flavored ice. However, the kind we enjoy today was most likely inventedin Italy.

25% of the Milwaukee residence become ill from

Cryptospoidium, a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal

illness and is transmitted by ingestion of

contaminated human or animal wastes

invented in+ California/ Nebraska

HOW OLDIS YOUR FOOD?a look at the evolution of foods we eat today,specifically in California and Nebraska

Tune into, Mark Bitman’s TED talk, What’sWrong With What We Eat, for more insight

India as boilingas

Crete, plumbers make a sewage and drainage system to create the first flushable toilet

Greeks have hot and cold showers intheir gyms

Hippocrates, a Greek Physician, recommends clean water by boiling and filtering

Roman aqueducts start bringing 1.2 billion liters of water a day a distance of 57 milesm

uis Pasteur develops theory that germsLouis uouspread diseasespspread diseas

first statewide study of water pollution inses at MITsthe United

first water treatment to reducter treatmencontaminationn

drinking water standards are establisheed for the US

Nixon establishes the EPA, an agency protecting air, water and land

Clean Water Act establishes a proregulate discharges of pollutant in USwater

rinking Water Act est drinking water standards

Water Quality Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate storm water runoff

Estimated 100 people die from contamination of public water in Milwaukee

Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsinare positive for mercury in 90% of samples. Fish consumption advisorieswere orderd in Great Lake States.

spinach

DD

00

00

00

80

100

2

400

p

ones, corn syrupcorn starch

real, conveWelchesDr. Pbu

oreoes, hostess cupcakes, GirlScobread, Ritz, canned soda, chnutella, Betty Crocker cake mix,smoothies, / Kool-Aid, / Reuben Sandwich, / Dorothy/ Runza, + cobb salad

rs, ramFCS, ch

tomatoes,dies,

00-1950

950-200

ows,

a

goes

namon

bathat germs

de study of wasthe United States at e

1914

educe

drinking water stanestablishe

1972

es the EPA, anng air, water and

Clean

1974

s a program to of pollutant in US

Safe Drinking Wa

Rac

he

l Ko

carn

ik /

UN

L

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NOW

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TOMORROW

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LOOKING AT POLAR BEARS IS A BIT LIKE REMEMBERING THE WEATHER: WE

THE WARM DAYS AND TRY TO FORGET THE COLD ONES (BUT DON’T FORGET THAT THE POLAR BEARS PROBABLY THINK THE OPPOSITE).

REMMEBER...

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00

The Benefits of Fruit/Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. None have cholesterol/Fruits are sources of many essential nutrients that are underconsumed, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid)

The Benefits of Whole Grains/Stroke risk reduced/Type 2 diabetes risk reduced/Heart disease risk reduced /Better weight maintenance

The Benefits of Legumes

/Excellent source of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber/Helps prevent the hunger that can lead to unhealthy snacking, because a small amount of beans keep you fuller longer

The Benefits of Nuts/Contain unsaturated fatty acids and other nutrients, are a great snack food/Eating nuts as part of a healthy diet can be good for your heart/All nuts contain fiber, which helps lower your cholesterol

The Benefits of Seeds/Flax seeds as an excellent source of fiber/Seeds help reduce the levels of inflammation in your body, which might reduce your risk of heart disease/Has healthy unsaturated fat

The Benefits of Greens

/Leafy greens are full of vitamins, minerals, and disease-fighting phytochemicals/Collards and kale, are particularly rich in calcium, which helps keep your teeth and bones strong and reduces your overall risk for osteoporosis

The Benefits of Vegetables/Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, and vitamin C/Helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease

THE VEGAN DIET

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00

The Negatives of Beef/Saturated Fat/Inceased likelihood of Cancer/Type 2 Diabetes/ Increased risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

The Negatives of Chicken/High in Cholesterol /Increased risk of Cancer like breast and prostate /Salmonella/E.coli

The Negatives of Pork/Heart Disease/Increased Bladder Cancer risk/Hepatitis E /Hard to digest

The Negatives ofFish /Increased risk of Cardiovascular Disease/Mercury/Dioxins /Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

The Negatives ofDairy/Hormones/Mucous-forming/Hard to Digest/Higher rates of Caner

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00

Drought Resistant Crops in California and Nebraska

Mustard Greens

Tomatoes

‘Hopi Pink' Corn

Swiss Chard

Armenian Cucumber

Okra

'Iroquois' Cantaloupe

‘Pineapple’ Tomatoes

VEGANINDROUGHT

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00

2.5% of the United States is Vegan

Gallons of water to grow one pound of wheat25

5,000 Gallons of water to grow one pound of beef

Soy and Meat Production in 2009

Soy Meat

Trillion Gallonsof Water

5 235

With One Vegan Meal You Save....3,000 Gallons of water

*Based on replacing 4 ounces of beef for one vegan meal

70% of freshwater consumption is used to make meat and dairy products

38% of land use is used towards factory farming

19% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions come from factory farming

FACTSABOUTBEINGVEGAN

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Every square mile of the ocean has over 46,000 pieces of floating plastic in it.

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B.P.A.

17 million barrels of oil used per year to make plastic bottles.

30 billion water bottles consumed every year.

P.E.T. PLASTICS

Eighty percent of the water bottlesend up in landfills

P.E.T. plastics

DON’T

biodegrade

Ran

dal

l Ow

en

s /

UN

L

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Boxed Water cartons result in only8 grams of greenhouse gas emissions.

About 76% of the box is from a renewable resource, trees.

Cartons are recyclable. The Carton Council is continuously adding new carton recycling facilities throughout the US.

More efficient compared to shipping empty plastic or glass bottles to be filled.

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Allied Sales & Distribution, Inc.

IFS (Individual

LA Distributing Co.

MKZ Distributors

Real Soda

Refreshments Direct

Reliant Food Service

UNFI Lancaster

Vitco Food Services

Nebraska CaliforniaCaliforniaNebraska

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THERE IS A SYSTEM BEHIND THE COLOR

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OF YOUR FOOD.

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KEEP SWIMMING. KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.

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KEEP SWIMMING. KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.KEEP SWIMMING.

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00

GREEK YOGURTACID WHEYTOXICITYThe sudden popularity of greek yogurt may begin affecting our environment negatively. Greek yogurt produces a waste called acid whey. Acid whey is produced when it is strained from yogurt to create the thick consistency of greek yogurt consumers desire.

Unfortunately, this whey acid is toxic to our ecosystems and is difficult to get rid of. Simply dumping it is illegal. This by-product is “toxic enough to rob aquatic ecosystems of enough oxygen to harm fish and other species.”

The two major greek yogurt companies, Chobani and fa*ge, provided comments that state they are attempting to find alternatives to using whey acid. These companies give farmers acid whey to be used as a protein supplement for animals and fertilizer because simply dumping the acid whey is illegal.

“[Acid Whey is] toxic enough to rob aquatic ecosystems of enough oxygen to harm fish and other species.”

SIEVE

BOWLYOGURT

ACID WHEY

CHEESECLOTH

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SALES HAVE RISEN FROM

$60MILLION A YEAR

$2BILLION A YEAR

TO

FROM 2005 - 2011

2500%RISE IN SALE

WHY THE SUDDEN POPULARITY?

All yogurts provide calcium, potassium protein, zinc and vitamins B6

and B12. But, Greek yogurt keeps you feeling full longer, contains twice

as much protein, has lower lactose, and contains probiotic cultures.

GREEK YOGURT FACTORIES IN

THE U.S.

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HOMEMADE GREEK YOGURT

Place fine-mesh strainer over large glass bowl; set aside. Heat milk over medium-low heat (do not stir while heating), until milk reaches 185 F. Remove from heat and allow to cool to 160 F. Strain milk through prepared strainer and cool, gently stirring occasionally, until milk registers 110 to 112 F.

In small bowl, gently stir ½ cup of warm milk into yogurt until smooth. Stir yogurt mixture back into milk. Cover with plastic wrap and poke several holes in plastic. Place bowl in oven and turn on oven light, creating warm environment of 100 to 110 F. Let yogurt sit undisturbed until thickened and set, 5 to 7 hours. Transfer bowl to refrigerator until completely chilled, at least 3 hours.

Set a fine-mesh strainer over 4-cup or 8-cup measuring cup and line with double layer of coffee filters or cheesecloth. Transfer yogurt to prepared strainer, cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate until 2 cups of liquid drained into the measuring cup, from 4 to 8 hours.

Transfer strained yogurt to airtight container, discarding strained liquid. Yogurt can be refrigerated for up to 1 week.

1

2

3

4

INGREDIENTS

4 CUPS

1/2 CUP

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WHAT IS IN ACID WHEY?

WATER LACTOSE SODIUM PROTEIN

POTASSIUM GALACTOSE

When acid whey is carelessly dumped, it can be toxic to its natural

enviornment. It will rob oxygen from streams and rivers and destory

aquatic life over potentially large areas.

Greek yogurt giants like Chobani and fa*ge pay farmers to haul acid

whey from their factories.

Acid whey’s highly acidic nature is much less valuable and tougher to

handle than, for instance, sweet whey, which is a popular ingredient

used in body-building supplements such as whey-protein powder.

HOW IS ACID WHEY REUSED?

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT FOR FARM ANIMALSFEEDFERTILIZER

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BUYBUY.

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BUYBUY.

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THERE IS CORRUPTION IN THE SYSTEM AND MERCURY IN THE FISH. THE TIME TO ACT WAS YESTERDAY. THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW. TOMORROW IS TOO LATE.

THERE IS CORRUPTION IN THE SYSTEM AND MERCURY IN THE FISH. THE TIME TO ACT WAS YESTERDAY. THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW. TOMORROW IS TOO LATE.

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THERE IS CORRUPTION IN THE SYSTEM AND MERCURY IN THE FISH. THE TIME TO ACT WAS YESTERDAY. THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW. TOMORROW IS TOO LATE.

THERE IS POLLUTION IN THE GOVERNMENT AND POISON IN THE FOOD. THE TIME TO ACT WAS YESTERDAY. THE TIME TO ACT IS NOW. TOMORROW IS TOO LATE.

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L

L

SL

SL

L

SL

L

S

SL

L

L L

SL

SL

SL

L

SL

L

L

L

L

SLL

SL

SLL

SLL

SSL L

LL

SLSL SL

L

SL

LThe Drought Monitor focuses on broad-scale conditions. Local conditions may vary. See accompanying text summary for forecast statements.

SL

L

http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/

U.S. Drought Monitor March 18, 2014

Valid 7 a.m. EDT(Released Thursday, Mar. 20, 2014)

Intensity:D0 Abnormally DryD1 Moderate DroughtD2 Severe DroughtD3 Extreme DroughtD4 Exceptional Drought

Author: Eric Luebehusen

Drought Impact Types:

S = Short-Term, typically less than 6 months (e.g. agriculture, grasslands)

L = Long-Term, typically greater than 6 months (e.g. hydrology, ecology)

Delineates dominant impacts

U.S. Department of Agriculture

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U.S. Drought MapMarch 2014Map courtesy of National Climatic Data Centerhttp://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/

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Resources7.2. “7.2 SQ MI Is the Data Story of a Physically and

Economically Changing Place.” 7.2 SQ MI is the data story of a physically and economically changing place. 7.2 Sq. Mi, February 17, 2014. http://detroitsevenpointtwo.com/.

Barthes, R., and Annette Lavers. Mythologies. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972. http://books.google.com/books?id=BuLYyrScm1YC.

“California Drought: Water Use Varies Widely Around the State - Inside Bay Area.” Accessed February 9, 2014. http://www.insidebayarea.com/news/ci_25090364/california-drought-water-use-varies-widely-around-state.

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TypefaceAvenir is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1988 and released by Linotype GmbH, now a subsidiary of Monotype Corporation.

PrintingUNL / Department of Art + Art History Digital Lab Woods Art Building

Special thanks toPeter PinnellDepartment Chair,UNL / Hixson-Lied Professor of Art

Jesse Starita, Education Outreach Associate Daugherty Water for Food Institute

Katie NielandCommunications CoordinatorCenter for Great Plains Studies

Lexi BassDigital Instructional Specialist UNL / Department of Art + Art History

Kathe AndersenPublications CoordinatorHixson-Lied College of Fine and Performing Arts

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San Francisco State UniversityDAI 525 / Advanced Graphic DesignIngrid AlfaroNick BaldassiniJudy ChuTed DavisSarah JaaczakMichelle Lester Chelsea Lowery Mandana Macdougal William PaulyMariana Serrano Foster Stevenson

Joshua Singer, Instructor

University Of Nebraska LincolnGRPH 421 + 426 / Advanced Graphic DesignAlexandria AndersonAlyssa Brunswick Alysia DirksJoseph Gentzler Wendy Huynh Karley Johnson Amanda KesslerRachel Kocarnik Nancy Le TeyAnjulee Leon Kristopher Mangrum Robert Moore Emma O’Connell A.J. Oglesby Randall Owens Paul Raymond Nicholas Sharon Joshua SiscoJoshua Thorne Stacy Asher, Instructor

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