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1 SOUTHEASTERN U.S VEGETABLE CROP V E G E T A B L E C R O P H A N D B O O K HANDBOOK Handbook Senior Editor: J.M. Kemble...

SOUTHEASTERN U.S.

2011 VEGETABLE CROP

VEGETABLE CROP HANDBOOK 2011

HANDBOOK Handbook Senior Editor:

J.M. Kemble, Auburn University, Auburn, AL Associate Editors: F.J. Louws North Carolina State University, Plant Pathology K.M. Jennings North Carolina State University Weeds J.F. Walgenbach North Carolina State University, Entomology

North Carolina Vegetable Growers Association

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page a

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This handbook was prepared and reviewed by the following authors at respective institutions:

North Carolina State University Horticulture — R.B. Batts, J.M. Davis, C.C. Gunter, W.R. Jester (Emeritus), K.M Jennings, D. W. Monks, J.R. Schultheis, and A.C. Thornton Biological and Agricultural Engineering — G.T. Roberson Entomology — J.F. Walgenbach, M.R. Abney, and G.G. Kennedy Plant Pathology — K.L. Ivors, and F.J. Louws* Soil Science — C.R. Crozier, R.J. Gehl, and G.D. Hoyt

Auburn University Horticulture — J.M. Kemble* and E. Vinson, III Plant Pathology — E.J. Sikora Entomology — A. Majumdar Horticulture—J.M Kemble* Plant Pathology—E.J. Sikora Weed Science—M.G. Patterson

Clemson University Horticulture — R.L. Hassell*, G.A. Miller Plant Pathology — A. Keinath Entomology — P. Smith

University of Georgia Horticulture — G.E. Boyhan* Plant Pathology — D.B. Langston Crop & Soil Science — A.S. Culpepper Entomology — A.N. Sparks

Louisiana State University Ag Center Horticulture — J. E. Boudreaux* Entomology — A. L. Morgan Plant Pathology — D.M. Ferrin Sweet Potato Research Station — T. Smith

University of Kentucky Horticulture — T.W. Coolong* Plant Pathology — K.W. Seebold Entomology — R.T. Bessin

University of Tennessee Horticulture – A.L. Wszelaki* Plant Pathology – S.C. Bost Entomology – F.A. Hale Weed Science — G.R. Armel

Mississippi State University Horticulture — D.H. Nagel and R.G. Snyder* Plant Pathology — D. Ingram Entomology — M.B. Layton Weed Science — J.D. Byrd and M.W. Shankle

University of Florida Plant Pathology — G. Vallad Weed Science — A.W. MacRae, W. Stall *State Coordinators

Virgina Tech Horticulture — J.H. Freeman* Horticulture\Weed Science — R. A. Straw Plant Pathology — S.L. Rideout Soil Science — M.S. Reiter

The purpose of this book is to provide the best and most up-to-date information available for commercial vegetable growers in the southeastern US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina and Virginia. These recommendations are suggested guidelines for production in the above states. Factors such as markets, weather, and location may warrant modifications and/or different practices or planting dates not specifically mentioned in this book.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page i

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION INFORMATION WEB SITES ALABAMA

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

NORTH CAROLINA

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.aces.edu

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu

Commercial Vegetable Information

Information on Herbs, Organics, & Specialty Crops

http://www.aces.edu/dept/com_veg

http://ncherb.org

AU Plant Diagnostic Lab

NCSU Plant Disease Fact Sheets

http://www.aces.edu/dept/plantdiagnosticlab/

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/fact_sheets/ index.htm

AU Vegetable Entomology/Insect Advisory

https://sites.aces.edu/group/commhort/vegetable ARKANSAS

North Carolina Pest News

http://ipm.ncsu.edu/current_ipm/pest_news.html

Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service

National IPM Network NC Component

http://www.uaex.edu

http://ipm.ncsu.edu

FLORIDA

University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu GEORGIA

University of Georgia Extension Vegetable Team

http://www.ugaveg.org KENTUCKY

University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service

http://ces.ca.uky.edu/ces LOUISIANA

Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.lsuagcenter.com MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi State University Extension Service

http://msucares.com MS Greenhouse Tomato Production FAQ

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort/greenhouse.html MS Greenhouse Tomato Short Course

http://greenhousetomatosc.com Mississippi Commercial Horticulture Information

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production

http://msucares.com/crops/comhort/organic_veg_fruit.html

Vegetable Insect Information Notes

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Vegetables/ vegetable_contents.html Horticulture Information Leaflets

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/ Fresh Produce Safety

http://www.NCfreshproducesafety.org OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.dasnr.okstate.edu/ SOUTH CAROLINA

Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service

http://www.clemson.edu/extension TENNESSEE

University of Tennessee Extension Service

http://www.utextension.utk.edu UT Vegetable Production

http://vegetables.tennessee.edu UT Organics & Sustainable Crop Production

http://organics.tennessee.edu TEXAS

Texas Agricultural Extension Service

http://texasextension.tamu.edu VIRGINIA

Virginia Cooperative Extension

http://www.ext.vt.edu

Page ii

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

CONTENTS List of Tables for General Production Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Insect, Disease, and Weed Control Tables. . . . . v-ix General Production Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Varieties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Crop Rotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Soils and Soil Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Cover Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Plant Growing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Disease Control in Plant Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Seed Storage and Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Plant Populations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Irrigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Mulches and Row Covers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Pollination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment. . . . . . . . . 18 Calibrating a Sprayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Calibrating a Granular Applicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Calibrating a Broadcast Spreader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Calibration Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Beneficial Insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Postharvest Perennial Weed Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Diagnosing Vegetable Crop Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Air Pollution Injury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 What are Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)?. . . . . . . . 31 Basic Principles of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) .31 Postharvest Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Optimizing Commerical Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Cooling Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Specific Commodity Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Asparagus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beans: Lima and Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Kale, and Kohlrabi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cucumbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eggplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Garlic and Elephant Garlic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greens: Mustard, Turnip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Melons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Okra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Onions and Green Onions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parsley and Cilantro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parsnip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peas: English/Garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peas: Southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potatoes, Irish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pumpkins and Winter Squash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radishes, Rutabagas, and Turnips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spinach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summer Squash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sweet Corn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sweetpotato. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tomatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watermelon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35 36 37 40 41 46 49 52 54 56 57 58 61 64 66 68 69 70 71 73 76 78 82 84 85 88 92 94 99

Pest Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Soil Pests: Their Detection and Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Registered Fungicides, Insecticides, and Miticides for Vegetables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Resistance Management and the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Codes for Modes of Action of Insecticides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Be Safe with Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

General Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Respiratory Protective Devices for Pesticides. . . . . . . . Protecting Our Groundwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toxicity of Chemicals Used in Pest Control . . . . . . . . .

107 110 111 113

Insect, Disease, and Weed Control Tables. . . . . . . 115-278 Emergency Numbers by State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page iii

TABLES 1A. Vegetable Families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Soil Test Interpretations and Recommendations Based on Soil Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Lime and Fertilizer Suggestions for Vegetable Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Nutrient Values for Manure Applications and Crop Residues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Percentage Equivalents and Conversion Factors for Major, Secondary, and Micronutrient Fertilizer Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Optimum and Minimum Temperatures for Transplant Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Vegetable Seed Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Population of Plants per Acre at Several Between-row and In-row Spacings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8. Critical Periods of Water Need for Vegetable Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. Available Water-Holding Capacity Based on Soil Texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 10. Soil Infiltration Rates Based on Soil Texture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11. Hours Required to Apply 1" Water to Mulched Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12. Maximum Irrigation Periods for Drip Irrigation Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 13. Predators and Parasites of Vegetable Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 14. Recommended Storage Conditions and Cooling Methods for Maximum Postharvest Life of Commercially Grown Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

INSECT, DISEASE, & WEED CONTROL TABLES ALL VEGETABLES

Table 2-77. Relative Effectiveness Of Insecticides And Miticides For Insect And Mite Control On Vegetables. . . . . . . . . . 182 Table 3-1. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Table 3-60. Nematode Control In Vegetable Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Table 3-61. Greenhouse Disease Control For Tomato And Other Vegetable Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Table 3-62. Relative Effectiveness Of Various Products For Greenhouse Tomato Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Table 3-63. Sanitizing Greenhouses And Plant Beds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Table 3-64. Generic Fungicides For Use On Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Table 3-75. Fungicides Registered For Seed Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 ASPARAGUS

Table 2-1. Table 2-2. Table 2-3. Table 3-2. Table 3-3. Table 4-1.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Alternative Control Measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

BEAN

Table 2-4. Table 2-5. Table 2-6. Table 3-4. Table 3-5. Table 3-6. Table 4-2.

Page iv

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Foliar Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Relative Importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

INSECT, DISEASE, & WEED CONTROL TABLES

(CONTINUED)

BEET

Table 2-7. Table 2-8. Table 3-43. Table 4-3.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUT, CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER (COLE CROPS)

Table 2-9. Table 2-10. Table 2-11. Table 3-7. Table 3-8. Table 3-9. Table 4-4.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Relative Importance of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

CANTALOUPE (MUSKMELON)

Table 2-12. Table 2-13. Table 2-14 Table 3-26. Table 4-5.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

CARROT

Table 2-15. Table 2-16. Table 2-17. Table 3-44. Table 4-6.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

CELERY

Table 2-18. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Table 4-7. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 COLLARD

Table 2-19. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Table 2-20. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Table 2-21. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Table 3-21. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Table 3-22. Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Table 4-12. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

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(CONTINUED)

CORN, SWEET

Table 2-22. Table 2-23. Table 2-24. Table 3-10. Table 3-11. Table 4-8.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

CUCUMBER

Table 2-25. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Table 2-26. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Table 2-27. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Table 3-12. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Table 3-13. Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Table 3-14. Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Table 4-9. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 EGGPLANT

Table 2-28. Table 2-29. Table 2-30. Table 3-15. Table 3-16. Table 4-10.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

ENDIVE

Table 3-17. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Table 3-18. Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 GARLIC

Table 3-19. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Table 3-20. Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Table 4-11. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE

Table 3-23. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 KOHLRABI

Table 2-31. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 LETTUCE

Table 2-32. Table 2-33. Table 2-34. Table 2-78. Table 3-24. Table 3-25. Table 4-13. Page vi

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Insect Control For Greenhouse Lettuce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

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(CONTINUED)

MUSTARD GREENS

Table 2-35. Table 2-36. Table 2-37. Table 3-21. Table 3-22. Table 4-12.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

OKRA

Table 2-38. Table 2-38. Table 2-40. Table 3-27. Table 4-14.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

ONION

Table 2-41. Table 2-42. Table 2-43. Table 3-28. Table 3-29. Table 3-30. Table 4-15.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Relative Effectiveness Of Various Chemicals For Onion Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

PARSLEY OR PARSNIP

Table 3-31. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Table 3-32. Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Table 3-45. Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 PEA

Table 2-44. Table 2-45. Table 2-46. Table 3-33. Table 3-34. Table 3-35. Table 4-16.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Alternative Management Tools: English Pea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Alternative Management Tools: Southern Pea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

PEPPER

Table 2-47. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Table 2-48. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Table 2-49. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Table 3-36. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Table 3-37. Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Table 3-38. Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Table 4-17. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

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(CONTINUED)

POTATO, IRISH

Table 2-50. Table 2-51. Table 2-52. Table 3-39. Table 3-40. Table 4-18.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

PUMPKIN AND WINTER SQUASH

Table 2-53. Table 2-54. Table 2-55. Table 3-41. Table 4-19.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

RADISH

Table 2-56. Table 2-57. Table 2-58. Table 4-20.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

ROOT VEGETABLE

Table 3-42. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 SPINACH

Table 2-59. Table 2-60. Table 2-61. Table 3-46. Table 3-47. Table 4-21.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Alternative Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

SQUASH

Table 2-62. Table 2-63. Table 2-64. Table 4-22.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

SWEETPOTATO

Table 2-65. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Table 2-66. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Table 2-67. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Table 3-48. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Table 3-49. Storage House Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Table 3-50. Relative Importance Of Chemicals For Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Table 3-51. Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Table 4-23. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

Page viii

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

INSECT, DISEASE, & WEED CONTROL TABLES

(CONTINUED)

TOMATILLO

Table 3-52. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 TOMATO

Table 2-68. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Table 2-69. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Table 2-70. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Table 2-79. Insect Control For Greenhouse Tomato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Table 3-53. Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Table 3-54. Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Management Practices For Foliar Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Table 3-55. Relative Effectiveness Of Various Chemicals For Foliar Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Table 3-56. Commercial Tomato Varieties, their Resistance to Specific Diseases, and recommended location for cultivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Table 3-57. Suggested Weekly Spray Schedule For Foliar Disease Control In Fresh-market Tomato Production. . . . . . . . 234 Table 3-58. Rates For Foliar Disease Control In Fresh-Market Tomatoes At Full Plant Growth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Table 4-24. Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 TURNIP

Table 2-71. Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Table 2-72. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Table 2-73. Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 WATERMELON

Table 2-74. Table 2-75. Table 2-76. Table 3-59. Table 4-25.

Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Alternative Control Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page ix

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GENERAL PRODUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS VARIETIES New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them, only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section, either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions. The ultimate value of a variety for a particular purpose is determined by the grower, the variety’s performance under his or her management, and environmental conditions. Strains of a particular variety may perform better than the standard variety under certain conditions. Several years of small trial plantings are suggested for any variety or strain not previously grown. For a true comparison, always include a standard in the same field or planting. Disease Resistance or Tolerance. Any particular crop may

deviate from the predicted response to a disease. This deviation may be due to different strains and races of disease-causing organisms and environmental conditions. Plant scientists have taken advantage of this natural variation to develop varieties that are resistant or tolerant. Superscripts appearing after the variety names refer to the disease resistance or tolerance and are spelled out in the “Abbreviations” section in the front of this book or following the listed recommended varieties. Specialty Vegetables. Many producers are considering grow-

ing specialty or “gourmet” vegetables of which several are highly perishable crops. A very limited number of pesticides are registered for many specialty vegetables and herbs. Successful pest control in these crops is dependent on sanitation, seed treatment, crop rotation, planting site, mechanical cultivation, and the use of resistant varieties when available. Promising perishable crops include asparagus, Belgian endive, dandelion (blanched), kale, Swiss chard, tyfon, herbs, ethnic vegetables, red leaf lettuce, romaine lettuce, scallions, snap peas, and snow peas. Less perishable types that offer promise are bok choy, Chinese cabbage, endive and escarole (blanched), garlic (pink skin), Japanese melons, leeks, pak choi, pep­per, Irish potato (red, blue, yellow, and golden), red radicchio, rhu­barb, sweet on­ions, and sweetpotatoes (moist and dry types with unusu­al color). Miniature or baby vegetables that can be grown are beets (harvested less mature), carrots (finger and round types), cucumbers (harvested less mature), eggplant (little fingers type), Jersey Golden acorn squash (immature with blossom attached), baby lettuce, pickling corn, snap beans (small sieve types harvested less mature), summer squash (immature with blossom attached), and winter squash (Oriental and Little Dumpling). Before planting a specialty crop, however, growers must determine that specific retail, wholesale, restaurant, or processing markets exist.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

CROP ROTATION Crop rotation is an effective and widely used cultural practice to prevent or reduce the buildup of populations of soil-borne plant pathogens. An effective rotation sequence includes crops from different families that are poor or non hosts of the pathogen(s) of concern. In general, the longer the rotation, the better the results; a 3- to 5-year rotation is generally recommended. However, from a practical standpoint this will depend upon the availability of land, the markets, the selection of alternate crops suited to grow in the area, the pathogen(s), and the purpose of the rotation (prevention versus reduction). When used to reduce pathogen populations, rotations of longer than 5 years may be required (see Table 1A).

Table 1A. VEGETABLE FAMILIES Grass Family

Pea Family

• Sweet corn • Popcorn • Ornamental Corn

• English Pea • Bean (lima, snap) • Cowpea or Southern pea • Soybean

Allium Family • Onion • Leek • Garlic • Shallot • Chive

Parsley Family

Goosefoot Family

Solanaceae Family

• Beet • Chard • Spinach

• Irish Potato • Eggplant • Tomato • Pepper

• Carrot • Parsley • Celery • Cilantro

Mustard Family • Kale • Collard • Brussels Sprout • Cabbage • Cauliflower • Broccoli • Kohlrabi • Rutabaga • Turnip • Mustard • Upland cress • Radish Malvaceae • Okra

Gourd Family • Pumpkin • Squash • Watermelon • Cucumber • Muskmelon • Cantaloupe Composite Family • Chicory • Endive & Escarole • Dandelion • Lettuce • Artichoke • Jerusalem artichoke

Bindweed Family • Sweetpotato

Page 1

SOILS AND SOIL FERTILITY The best soils for growing vegetables are well-drained, fairly deep, and relatively high in organic matter. These soils should have good structure and have been adequately limed and fertilized for the past few years. Loamy sand and sandy loam soils are gen­erally better suited for growing early market crops. Loam and silt loam soils are generally better suited for growing crops for later fresh-market use or for processing. Deep, well-drained organic soils are ideal for leafy vegetables, bulb and root crops that offer a high return per acre. The grower who matches the crop to the soil has the best chance of producing a successful crop. For example, if a crop that requires well-drained soil is planted on poorly drained soil, it’s doomed to failure regardless of a grower’s other efforts. A large percentage of the vegetables grown in mineral soils of the Coastal Plain are grown in soils with essentially no structure. At best these soils possess weak granular structures. In many areas, sand is preferred because it drains quickly so fields can be worked soon after rains or irrigation without damaging the structure of the soil. Soil Management. In a good soil management program, proper liming and fertilization, good tillage practices, crop rotation, annual additions of organic matter with cover crops, and adequate irrigation are all necessary to maintain high levels of production. Winter cover crops and periodically resting the land with summer cover crops between vegetable plantings are essential in preventing deterioration of the soil struc­ture. In soil management, this is vital for maintaining highly productive soils. Nutrient Management and Environmental Quality. The sandy soils preferred for vegetable production in the southeastern US result in an aerated root zone and enable timely tillage, planting, and harvesting. The same drainage allows water and dissolved nutrients to move through the soil profile. Even with loams or clays, nutrients retained in surface soil may be carried with sediment or as dissolved run-off to the surface waters. Nitrates and phosphorus remain the two agricultural nutrients of greatest environmental concern. Even agronomically small losses of N & P can impact water quality, especially in eco-sensitive regions. Other issues of potential concern include K fertilizer losses and accumulation of heavy metals such as copper, zinc, etc. supplied with organic amendments. Ongoing research has documented increased costs and reduced profits, as well as natural resource degradation and human health risks, due to over-fertilization. It is therefore critical that both nutrients and irrigation are managed to optimize vegetable production while minimizing impact on the environment. Careful nutrient management includes at least the following four issues: rate, timing, placement, and source. Land-grant university recommendations are based on calibrated crop response studies that can differ substantially across the region. Producers should consult guidelines prepared specifically for their state for the most appropriate nutrient management recommendations. A well-balanced nutrient management plan represents good stewardship and should satisfy any applicable environmental regulations. Page 2

Soil Acidity and Liming. Many soils in the southeast are naturally acidic, or become acidic with cropping, and need liming to attain optimum production levels. Soil acidity is the term used to express the quantity of hydrogen (H+) and aluminum (Al3+) cations (positively charged ions) in soils. Soil pH is determined by using a 1:1 soil-to-water solution. The pH of the solution is measured by a pH meter (potentiometer). Soil pH is an indicator of "soil acidity". Combined, the use of the soil pH and soil textural class determines the lime requirement. A pH of 7.0 is defined as neutral, with values below 7.0 being acidic and above 7.0 being basic or alkaline. Root growth and plant development may be severely restricted if acidic cations, especially aluminum, occupy a large percentage of the negatively charged soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). This negative charge is due to the chemical makeup of the soil clay and organic matter, and means that they can attract positively charged ions. Soils become acidic due to the leaching of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), especially in sandy coastal plain soils. Acidification also occurs when H+ is added to soils by decomposition of plant residues and organic matter, and during the nitrification of ammonium when added to soils as fertilizer (UAN solutions, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, anhydrous ammonia), manures, or plant residues. Declines of one pH unit can occur even in properly fertilized beds. The H+ added to soils reacts with the clay minerals (aluminum silicates) and releases Al3+, the most deleterious component of soil acidity. Lime is applied to neutralize soil acidity by releasing a base (HCO3-, OH -) into the soil solution, which reacts with acid (H+). Increasing soil pH reduces the concentration of dissolved aluminum, as well as influencing the concentrations of other ions. Lime recommendations must take into account differences in acidity among soils as well as differences among various crops’ tolerance to acidity. Both the soil pH and some measure of residual or exchangeable acidity are needed to calculate lime recommendations. Although portable soil test kits determine pH rapidly, it is not possible to make an accurate lime recommendation based solely on a pH measurement. Another issue to consider is that different soil laboratories may use different testing methods developed for their particular soil conditions. Due to these differences, producers should consult with their local Extension office about laboratory methods and target pH assumptions used in determining lime recommendations. Consult your state guidelines for a description of the current soil test method and interpretation guidelines. If soil pH is too high for the desired crop, elemental sulfur (S) is the most effective soil acidulant. The amount of acidity generated by 640 pounds of elemental S is the same as that neutralized by 1 ton of lime. In addition to lime, soil pH can be lowered by applying aluminum sulfate or iron sulfate. Whether trying to increase or decrease the pH of your soil, always follow the manufacturer's instructions for appropriate rates. A slight pH reduction can be produced by using ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or urea as a fertilizer source of nitrogen. Liming materials containing only calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium hydroxide [CA(OH)2], or calcium oxide (CaO) are called calcitic limes. Pure calcium carbonate is used as the standard for liming materials and is assigned a rating of 100 percent. This rating is also known as the “calcium carbonate equivalent, Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

and is referred to as the CCE. All other liming materials are rated in relationship to pure calcium carbonate. Liming materials with significant amounts of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) are called dolomitic limes. Dolomitic limes should be used on soils low in magnesium, as indicated by the soil test report. It is possible to use a magnesium fertilizer instead of dolomitic lime, but the costs of this source of magnesium are almost always considerably higher. Because lime dissolves very slowly, it must be finely ground to effectively neutralize soil acidity. Lime laws in most states describe standards for composition and particles sizes. The most commonly used liming materials are finely ground dolomitic or calcitic rock. Most agricultural lime is sold in bulk as a damp powder because dry lime is very dusty and difficult to handle and spread. However, lime is occasionally excessively wet. Lime is sold by the ton, thus be aware that you may be purchasing a substantial amount of water and should adjust lime rates accordingly. Additional liming materials include burnt lime or hydrated lime, pelleted lime, liquid lime, wood ash, ground seashells, and industrial slags. Lime pellets and lime suspensions (liquid lime) can be convenient and fast-acting, but are usually considerably more expensive than ground limestones. Industrial by-product liming materials can be useful soil amendments capable of reducing soil acidity and supply a variety of nutrients including calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and micronutrients. Each lot of such materials should be analyzed as considerable variation in CCE, fineness, and nutrient composition may occur. Within a one to three year time-period, lime moves little in the soil and neutralizes acidity only in the zone where it is applied. To be most effective, lime must be uniformly spread and thoroughly incorporated. In practice, rates are adjusted after checking the spreader pattern and making appropriate corrections. If the application is not correct, strips of under-limed soil could result, possibly reducing crop yields. The most commonly used lime incorporation tool is the disk. It will not incorporate lime as well as offset disks that throw the soil more vigorously. The best incorporation implement is a heavy-duty rotary tiller that mixes the soil throughout the root zone. Lime and Fertilizer. Lime and fertilizer work together synergis-

tically to produce high yields and better crops. Lime is not a substitute for fertilizer, and fertilizer is not a substitute for lime.

How to Use Plant Nutrient Recommendation Table #1 and #2. Use Table 1 to determine the relative levels of phos­phorus

and potassium in the soil based on the soil test report from the laboratory. Use Table 2 as a guide in conjunction with specific soil test results. Plant nutrient recom­mendations listed in Table 2 are expressed in terms of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O), rather than in specific grades and amounts of fertilizer. When soil test results are not available, use recommended amounts of P2O5 and K2O listed under medium phosphorus and medium potassium soil test levels for the crop to be grown. When soil test results are available, the phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O) needs for each cropping situation can be determined by selecting the appropriate values under the relative soil test levels for phosphorus and potassium: very low, low, medium, high, or very high. The cropping and manuring history of the field must be known before a fertilization program can be planned (see Table 3). This history is very important in planning a nitrogen fertilization program, because a reliable soil test for nitrogen is not available. Plant nutrient recommendations listed in Table 2 were developed for fields where no manure is being applied and where no legume crop is being turned under prior to the planting of a new crop. If manure and/or legume crops are being used, the plant nutrient recommenda­tions listed in Table 2 should be reduced by the amounts of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O) being contributed from these sources. See Table 3 for nutrient values for manure applications and legume crop residues. Once the final fertilizer-plant nutrient needs are known, determine the grade and rate of fertilizer needed to fulfill these requirements. For ex­ample, if the final plant nutrient requirements that need to be added as a commercial fertilizer are 50 pounds of nitrogen (N), 100 pounds of phosphate (P2O5), and 150 pounds of potash (K2O), a fertilizer with a 1-2-3 ratio, such as 5-10-15, 6-12-18, 7-14-21, is needed. Once the grade of fertilizer is selected, the quantity needed to fulfill the plant nutrient requirements can be deter­mined by dividing the percentage of N, P2O5, or K2O con­tained in the fertilizer into the quantity of the respective plant nutrient needed per acre and multiplying the answer by 100. For example, if a 5-10-15 fertilizer grade is chosen to supply

Table 1. SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON SOIL TEST RESULTS Soil Test Rating Low

Relative Yield without Nutrient (%) 50–75

Recommendations Annual application to produce maximum response and increase soil fertility.

Medium

75–100

Normal annual application to produce maximum yields.

High*

100 Small applications to maintain soil level. Amount suggested may be doubled and applied in alternate years.

Very high*

100 None until level drops back into high range. This rating permits growers, without risk of loss in yields, to benefit economically from high levels added in previous years. Where no P or K is applied, soils should be resampled in 2 years. When phosphorus is extremely high, further additions may limit the availability of Fe and/or Zn.

* Some states recommend that no fertilizer P or K be added when the soil test rating is either “High” or “Very High”, in order to minimize runoff in nutrient-sensitive watersheds

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 3

Table 2. GENERAL LIME AND FERTILIZER SUGGESTIONS FOR VEGETABLE CROPS Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level

Soil Potassium Level Very High

Very High

Desirable pH

Nitrogen (N) lb/acre

6.5

100

200

100

50

200

150

50

Total recommended.

50

200

100

50

100

75

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

50

100

75

Sidedress after cutting.

...New Crown Plantings/ Direct Seeding

50

200

100

50

200

100

100

Total recommended.

200

100

50

100

75

50

Broadcast and disk in.

50

100

25

50

Sidedress at first cultivation.

...Cutting Bed or Non-hybrids

100

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

100

75

50

Broadcast before cutting season.

50

100

75

50

Sidedress after cutting.

100

200

150

100

300

225

150

Total recommended.

50

200

150

100

150

100

75

Broadcast before cutting season.

50

100

125

75

Sidedress after cutting.

CROP

Low

Med

High

Low

P2O5 lb/acre

Med

High

K2O lb/acre

Nutrient Timing and Method

ASPARAGUS ...Growing crowns

...New hybrids

Apply 2 lb boron (B) per acre every 3 years on most soils. BEAN, Lima

6 to 6.5

...Single crop

BEAN, Snap

BEET

6 to 6.5

6 to 6.5

70 to 110

120

80

40

20

160

120

80

20

Total recommended.

25 to 50

80

40

20

120

80

60

Broadcast and disk-in. Band-place with planter.

20

40

40

20

20

40

40

20

20

25 to 40

Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after emergence.

40 to 80

80

60

40

20

80

60

40

20

Total recommended.

20 to 40

40

40

40

40

Broadcast and disk-in.

20 to 40

40

20

40

20

40

20

40

20

Band-place with planter.

75 to 100

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 4 to 6 weeks after planting.

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. BROCCOLI

6 to 6.5

125 to 175

200

100

50

200

100

50

Total recommended.

50 to 100

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

50

50

50

Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting.

25

Sidedress every 2 to 3 weeks after initial sidedressing.

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. BRUSSEL SPROUTS, CABBAGE, and CAULIFLOWER

6 to 6.5

100 to 175

200

100

50

200

100

50

Total recommended.

50 to 75

200

100

50

200

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting.

25 to 50

Sidedress if needed, according to weather.

Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre and molybdenum per acre as 0.5 lb sodium molybdate per acre with broadcast fertilizer. CARROT

6 to 6.5

50 to 80

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 30

Sidedress if needed.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilzer. CORN, Sweet

6 to 6.5

110 to 155

160

120

80

20

160

120

80

20

Total recommended.

40 to 60

120

100

60

120

100

60

Broadcast before planting.

20

40

20

20

20

40

20

20

20

Band-place with planter.

50 to 75

Sidedress when corn is 12 to 18 in. tall.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. NOTE: On very light sandy soils, sidedress 40 lb N per acre when corn is 6 in. tall and another 40 lb N per acre when corn is 12 to 18 in. tall. CUCUMBER ...Bareground

...Plasticulture

6 to 6.5

80 to160

150

100

50

25

200

150

100

25

Total recommended.

40 to 100

125

75

25

175

125

75

Broadcast and disk-in.

20 to 30

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Band-place with planter 7 to 14 days after planting.

20 to 30

Sidedress when vines begin to run, or apply in irrigation water.

120 to 150

150

100

50

25

216

183

150

25

Total recommended.

25

125

25

25

45

35

25

Broadcast and disk-in.

95 to 125

175

150

125

25

Fertigate

Drip fertilization: See “cucumber” in specific recommendations later in this handbook.

Page 4

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Table 2. CONTINUED. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level

CROP EGGPLANT

Soil Potassium Level Very High

Low

250

150

100

Very High

Desirable pH

Nitrogen (N) lb/acre

6 to 6.5

100 to 200

250

150

100

50 to 100

250

150

100

250

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting.

25 to 50

Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting.

...Bareground

Low

Med

High

Med

P2O5 lb/acre

High

Nutrient Timing and Method

K2O lb/acre 0

Total recommended.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. ...Plasticulture

145

250

150

100

240

170

100

Total recommended.

50

250

150

100

100

100

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

95

140

70

Fertigate.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “eggplant” in specific recommendations later in this handbook. ENDIVE, ESCAROLE, LEAF AND ROMAINE LETTUCE

6 to 6.5

ICEBERG LETTUCE

6 to 6.5

LEAFY GREENS, COLLARD, KALE, and MUSTARD

6 to 6.5

75 to 150

200

150

100

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50 to 100

200

150

100

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after planting.

85 to 175

200

150

100

200

150

100

Total recommended.

60 to 80

200

150

100

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 30

Sidedress 3 times beginning 2 weeks after planting.

75 to 80

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 30

Sidedress, if needed.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. LEEK

6 to 6.5

75 to 125

200

150

100

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50 to 75

200

150

100

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting, if needed. Total recommended.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. CANTALOUPES & MIXED MELONS ...Bareground

6 to 6.5

75 to 115

150

100

50

25

200

150

100

25

25 to 50

125

75

25

175

125

75

Broadcast and disk-in.

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Band-place with planter.

25 to 40

Sidedress when vines start to run.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. ...Plasticulture

75 to 150

150

100

50

25

200

250

154

25

Total recommended.

25

125

75

25

175

50

50

25

Broadcast and disk-in.

50 to 100

25

25

25

25

25

200

104

Fertigate.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “cantaloupe” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. OKRA

6 to 6.5

100 to 200

250

150

100

250

150

100

Total recommended.

50 to 100

250

150

100

250

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting.

25 to 50

Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. NOTE: Where plastic mulches are being used, broadcast 50 to 100 lb nitrogen (N) per acre with recommended P2O5 and K2O and disk incorporate prior to laying mulch. Drip fertilization: See “okra” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. ONION

6 to 6.5

...Bulb

125 to 150

200

100

50

200

100

50

Total recommended.

50 to 75

200

100

50

200

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

75 to 100

Sidedress twice 4 to 5 weeks apart.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. ...Green

150 to 175

200

100

50

200

100

50

Total recommended.

50 to 75

200

100

50

200

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

50

Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

50

Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks before harvest.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. PARSLEY

PARSNIP

6 to 6.5

6 to 6.5

100 to 175

200

150

100

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50 to75

200

150

100

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress after first cutting.

25 to 50

Sidedress after each additional cutting.

50 to 100

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

25 to 50

150

100

50

150

100

50

25 to 50

Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 5

Table 2. CONTINUED. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level

Soil Potassium Level Very High

Desirable pH

Nitrogen (N) lb/acre

PEA, English

5.8 to 6.5

40 to 60

PEA, Southern

5.8 to 6.5

16

96

48

96

48

6 to 6.5

100 to 130

200

150

100

200

150

50

200

150

100

200

150

25 to 50

25 to 30

100 to 185

200

150

100

50

200

150

100

50 to 135

CROP

PEPPER ...Bareground

...Plasticulture

Low

Med

High

Low

Med

120

80

P2O5 lb/acre 120

80

High

Very High Nutrient Timing and Method

K2O lb/acre

40

40

Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in before seeding.

Broadcast and disk-in.

100

Total recommended.

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

Sidedress after first fruit set.

Sidedress later in season, if needed.

365

300

235

Total recommended.

100

100

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

265

200

135

Fertigate. Total recommended.

Drip fertilization: See “pepper” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. POTATO, Irish

5.8 to 6.2

...Loams and silt loams ...Sandy loams and loamy sands

PUMPKIN and WINTER SQUASH ...Bareground

6 to 6.5

...Plasticulture

RADISH

6 to 6.5

RUTABAGA and TURNIP

6 to 6.5

100 to 150

110

90

70

50

200

150

50

50

85 to 135

60

40

20

200

150

50

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

15

50

50

50

50

Band-place with planter at planting.

150

200

150

100

50

300

200

100

50

Total recommended.

50

200

150

100

50

300

200

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.

100

80 to 90

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

40 to 50

150

100

50

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress when vines begin to run.

40 to 45

80 to 150

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

25 to 50

150

100

50

100

75

50

Disk in row.

55 to 100

100

75

50

Fertigation.

50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. 50 to 75

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

25 to 50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress when plants are 4 to 6 in. tall.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. SPINACH

6 to 6.5

...Fall ...Overwinter

SQUASH, Summer

6 to 6.5

75 to 125

200

150

100

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50 to 75

200

150

100

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Sidedress or topdress.

80 to 120

Total recommended for spring application to an overwintered crop.

50 to 80

Apply in late February.

30 to 40

Apply in late March.

100 to 130

150

100

50

150

100

50

Total recommended.

25 to 50

150

100

50

150

100

50

Broadcast and disk-in.

50

Sidedress when vines start to run.

25 to 30

Apply through irrigation system.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “summer squash” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. SWEETPOTATO

5.8 to 6.2

50 to 80

200

100

50

300

200

150

120

150

60

30

150

50

30

Total recommended.

50 to 80

50

40

20

150

150

120

120

Sidedress 21 to 28 days after planting. Total recommended.

Broadcast and disk-in.

Add 0.5 lb of actual boron (B) per acre 40 to 80 days after transplant. TOMATO ...Bareground for Sandy loams and loamy sands

6 to 6.5

80 to 90

200

150

100

300

200

100

40 to 45

200

150

100

300

200

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

40 to 45

Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. ... B areground for Loam and clay

75 to 80

200

150

100

250

150

100

Total recommended.

50

200

150

100

250

150

100

Broadcast and plow down.

25 to 30

Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.

Page 6

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Table 2. CONTINUED. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level

CROP

Soil Potassium Level Very High

Low

Med

Very High

Desirable pH

Nitrogen (N) lb/acre

6 to 6.5

130 to 210

200

150

100

420

325

275

Total recommended.

50

200

150

100

125

125

125

Broadcast and disk-in.

80 to 160

295

220

150

Fertigate.

TOMATO ...Plasticulture

Low

Med

High

P2O5 lb/acre

High

K2O lb/acre

Nutrient Timing and Method

Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Drip fertilization: See “tomato” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. WATERMELON

6 to 6.5

...Nonirrigated ...Irrigated

...Plasticulture

75 to 90

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

200

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 40

Topdress when vines start to run.

100 to 150

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

50

150

100

50

150

150

100

Broadcast and disk-in.

25 to 50

Topdress when vines start to run.

25 to 50

Topdress at first fruit set.

125 to 150

150

100

50

200

150

100

Total recommended.

25 to 50

150

100

50

100

75

50

Disk in row.

100

100

75

50

Fertigation.

NOTE:Excessive rates of N may increase the incidence of hollow heart in seedless watermelon. Drip fertilization: See “watermelon” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.

Table 3. NUTRIENT VALUES FOR MANURE APPLICATIONS AND CROP RESIDUES

N P2O5 K2O

N P2O5 K2O Pounds per Ton

3

Alfalfa sod

50-1002 0

10

Hairy vetch

50-100

2

Ladino clover sod

60

Horse manure

5-101 2 6-121 3

6

Crimson clover sod

50

Liquid poultry manure

7-151 5-10

5-10

Red clover sod

40

Birdsfoot trefoil

40

Lespedeza

20 0

Tops and roots

40

Grain harvest residue

15

Cattle manure Poultry manure Pig manure

5-101 3 25-501 20

Pounds per Ton

(5-15% solids)

Soybeans

1 Lower values for fall- and winter-applied manure and higher values for spring-applied manure. Use these figures only if manure being used has not been analyzed. 2 75% stand = 100-0-0, 50% stand = 75 -0-0, and 25% stand = 50-0-0.

the 50 pounds of N, 100 pounds of P2O5, and 150 pounds of K2O needed, calculate the amount of 5-10-15 fertilizer needed as follows: Divide the amount of nitrogen (N) needed per acre (50 pounds) by the percentage of N in the 5-10-15 fertilizer (5 percent), and multiply the answer (10) by 100, which equals 1,000 pounds. This same system can be used for converting any plant nutrient recommendations into grades and amounts. Secondary Nutrients.

Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) are included in the secondary element group. Calcium may be deficient in some soils that have not been properly limed, where excessive potash fertilizer has been used, and/or where crops are subjected to drought stress. Magnesium is the most likely of these elements to be deficient in vegetable soils. Dolomitic or high-magnesium limestones should be used when liming soils that are low in Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

magnesium. Magnesium should be applied as a fertilizer source on low-magnesium soils where lime is not needed. Magnesium may be applied as a foliar spray to supply mag­nesium to the crop in emergency situations. Sulfur is known to be deficient in vegetable crop soils in coastal plain soils. Sulfur deficiencies may develop as more air pollution controls are installed and with the continued use of high-analysis fertilizers that are low in sulfur content. Micronutrients.

Boron is the most widely deficient micronutrient in vegetable crop soils. Deficiencies of this element are most likely to occur in the following crops: asparagus, most bulb and root crops, cole crops, and tomatoes. Excessive amounts of boron can be toxic to plant growth. This problem can occur when snap beans (a sensitive crop) follow sweetpotatoes (a crop Page 7

where boron is applied late in the season). Do NOT exceed recommendations listed in Table 2. Manganese deficiency often occurs in plants growing on soils that have been overlimed. In this case, broadcast 20 to 30 pounds or band 4 to 8 pounds of manganese sulfate to correct this. Do not apply lime or poultry manure to such soils until the pH has dropped below 6.5, and be careful not to overlime again. Molybdenum deficiency of cauliflower (which causes whiptail) may develop when this crop is grown on soils more acid than pH 5.5. An application of 0.5 to 1 pound of sodium or ammonium molybdate per acre will usually correct this. Liming acid soils to a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 will usually prevent the development of molybdenum deficiencies in vegetable crops. Deficiencies of other micronutrients in vegetable crops in the Southeast are rare; and when present, are usually caused by overliming or other poor soil management practices. Contact Extension if a deficiency of zinc, iron, copper, or chlorine is suspected. Sources of fertilizers for the essential plant nutrients are found in Table 4. Municipal Biosoilds. Biosolids Should Not Be Applied to Land on Which Crops Will Be Grown That Will Be Entering the Human Food Chain. Municipal biosolids are the solid

material removed from sewage in treatment processes. Biosolids treated by one of the digestive or similar processes to reduce pathogens is a low-analysis fertil­izer suitable for application to nonfood crops under specific soil conditions. It should not be applied to sloping land, to highly leachable soils, to poorly drained soils, to soils with high water tables or near surface water, or to soils having a pH of less than 6.2. Check with your local or state department of environmental management for latest regulations. The time required to wait prior to planting a food crop varies from state to state. Foliar Fertilization. Foliar feeding of vegetables is usually not needed. If, for some reason, one or more soil-supplied nutrients becomes limiting or unavailable during the development of the crop, foliar nutrient applications may then be advantageous.

COVER CROPS Seeding dates suggested are for the central part of the Southeastern United States and will vary with elevation and northern or southern locations. Seeding spring oats at 60 to 100 pounds per acre during September or October provides a good cover crop that will winter-kill in the colder areas but may overwinter in warmer areas. Rye or wheat can be seeded at 80 to 110 pounds per acre after late September until mid-November. These crops can also be planted in strips for wind protection during the early part of the next growing season. A mixture of annual and perennial ryegrass (domestic) seeded at 15 pounds per acre before November is also a good cover crop. Living cover crops reduce nutrient loss during the winter and early spring. Living cover crops should be disked or plowed before they seriously deplete soil moisture. Summer cover crops, such as sudangrass or sudex, seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre are good green manure crops. Sunhemp, and pearl millet also provide a good green manure Page 8

crop and nematode suppression. They can be planted as early as field corn is planted and as late as August 15. These crops should be clipped, mowed, or disked to prevent seed devel­ opment that could lead to weed problems. Summer cover crops can be disked and planted to wheat or rye in September or allowed to winter-kill and tilled in the spring. Many soils that are not very productive due to poor physical properties can be restored and made to produce good crops through the use of a good resting-crop program. This practice also helps to reduce the buildup of many diseases and insects that attack vegetable crops. Small grains, sudangrass, sudex, timothy, orchardgrass, and ryegrass are good soil-resting crops. Consult state field crop or agronomy recommendations for details on seeding rates and management practices. Intensive cropping, working the soil when it was too wet, and excessive traffic from using heavy-tillage equipment can severely damage soils. These practices cause the soils to become hard and compact, resulting in poor seed germination, loss of transplants, and shallow root formation of surviving plants. Also, such soils easily form crusts and compact making them very difficult to irrigate properly. Consequences: poor plant stands, poor crop growth, low yields, and loss of income. Subsoiling in the row may help improve aeration and drainage of soils damaged by several years of excessive traffic from heavy-tillage equipment. Choosing a grass cover crop is a little easier than choosing a legume. Rye, barley, wheat, oats, and ryegrass can be planted in the fall; expect to harvest or plow under anywhere from 1/2 ton to 4 tons of dry matter per acre. RYE: Rye is probably used more as a winter cover than any other

grain. Most ryes will grow well in the fall (even late fall) and in late winter/early spring. This makes rye a top choice for farmers who have late-season vegetable crops with little time left before winter to sow a cover. Spring growth provides excellent biomass to turn under for use in early potatoes, cole crops, etc. Rye also provides a forage source for grazing animals and a straw source if harvested before mature seeds are formed or after rye seed harvest. (typical seeding rate: 110-160 lbs/A) BARLEY: Barley provides an excellent source of biomass in the spring. It grows shorter than rye, will tiller, and thus produces as much straw/forage/plow-down as rye. Barley takes longer to catch up with equivalent rye biomass, and the possibility of winter kill will be greater with barley. Late fall planting of barley will often result in winter kill. Plant in September or early October for greatest survival. (typical seeding rate: 110-140 lbs/A broadcast; 80-110 lbs/A drilled) WHEAT: Using wheat as a cover crop works well and provides the additional option of a grain harvest. Wheat needs to be planted in September or October and probably produces biomass similar to barley but will be a week or two later. It can be grazed before turning under or harvested for grain and the straw removed. Problems may occur if the Hessian fly is abundant. (typical seeding rate: 100-150 lbs/A) OATS: Oats can be managed to provide many options for the Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Table 4. P ERCENTAGE EQUIVALENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS FOR MAJOR, SECONDARY, AND MICRONUTRIENT FERTILIZER SOURCES Lb of Material Lb of Material Required to Supply Required to Supply 10 Lb of the 10 Lb of the Fertilizer Plant Food Initially List­ed Fertilizer Plant Food Initially List­ed Source Material Contents,% Plant Nutrient Source Material Contents,% Plant Nutrient __________________ Nitrogen Materials __________________ __________________ Magnesium Materials ____________________

Monoammonium phosphate* 11 (N) and 48 (P2O5) 91 Nitrate of potash* 13 (N) and 44 (K2O) 77 Nitrate of soda-potash* 15 (N) and 14 (K2O) 67 Calcium nitrate* 15 (N) and 19 (Ca) 67 Nitrate of soda 16 (N) 63 Diammonium phosphate* 18 (N) and 46 (P2O5) 56 Nitrogen solution 20 (N) 50 Ammonium sulfate* 20.5 (N) and 23 (S) 49 Nitrogen solution 30 (N) 33 Nitrogen solution 32 (N) 31 Ammonium nitrate 33.5-34.0 (N) 30 Nitrogen solution 40 (N) 25 Urea 45-46 (N) 22 Anhydrous ammonia 82 (N) 12 __________________ Phosphorus Materials __________________ Normal superphosphate* 20 (P2O5) and 11 (S) 50 Triple superphosphate* 44-46 (P2O5) 22 Monoammmonium phosphate* 11 (N) and 48 (P2O5) 21 Diammonium phosphate* 18 (N) and 46 (P2O5) 22 __________________ Potassium Materials __________________ Nitrate of soda-potash* 13 (N) and 14 (K2O) 71 Sulfate of potash- magnesia* 21.8 (K2O) and 11.1 (Mg) 46 Nitrate of potash* 13 (N) and 44 (K2O) 23 Sulfate of potash* 50 (K2O) and 17 (S) 20 Muriate of potash* 60 (K2O) 17 *

Epsom salts* Sulfate of potash- magnesia* Kieserite* Brucite

10 (Mg) and 13 (S) 21.8 (K2O) and 11.1 (Mg) 18.1 (Mg) 39 (Mg)

96

90 55 26

_____________________Sulfur Materials _____________________

Granulated sulfur Ammonium sulfate* Gypsum* Epsom salts*

90-92 (S) 23 (S) and 20.5 (N) 15-18 (S) and 19-23 (Ca) 13 (S) and 10 (Mg)

11 43 61 77

____________________ Boron Materials ______________________

Fertilizer Borate Granular* Fertilizer Borate-48 Solubor Fertilizer Borate-68

14.30 (B) 14.91 (B) 20.50 (B) 21.13 (B)

70 67 49 47

__________________ Manganese Materials ___________________

Manganese sulfate* Manganese sulfate* Manganese sulfate* Manganese oxide Manganese oxide

24.0 (Mn) 25.5 (Mn) 29.1 (Mn) 48.0 (Mn) 55.0 (Mn)

42 39 34 21 18

_____________________ Zinc Materials _____________________

Zinc sulfate* Zinc oxide

36 (Zn) 73 (Zn)

28 14

__________________Molybdenum Materials __________________ Sodium molybdate Sodium molybdate Ammonium molybdate*

39.5 (Mo) 46.6 (Mo) 56.5 (Mo)

25 21 18

Supplies more than one essential nutrient.

grower. Planting fall oats in September or October will provide a cover crop and good late spring biomass. It can be grazed, made into excellent hay, or the grain harvested and oat straw produced. Planting spring oats in the early fall can provide a good winter-killed mulch that could benefit perennial vegetables or small fruits. Spring oats have survived through some milder winters; thus, herbicides may be necessary to kill spring oats in perennial plantings. (typical seeding rate: 80-120 lbs/A) RYEGRASS: This grass has great potential use as a green manure and as a forage/hay material, but ryegrass can potentially become a difficult pest in some farm operations. In the mountain region, ryegrass grows rather slowly in the fall and provides only moderate winter erosion protection, but in late spring it produces an abundant supply of biomass. Grazing and spring hay from ryegrass can be excellent, and a fine, extensive root system makes it a great source for plowdown. (typical seeding rate: 5-10 lbs/A drilled; 15-30 lbs/A broadcast) Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

MIXING GRASS AND LEGUMES: Planting a single grass or

legume may be necessary, but combining a grass and legume together may prove better than either one alone. Grasses provide soil protection during the winter and also produce great forage or plow-down organic matter. Legumes do not grow well during the winter, but late spring growth is abundant and produces high protein forage and nitrogen for the following crop. Crimson clover is a legume to grow in companion with a grass. Crimson clover’s height matches well with barley, wheat, and oats, but may be shaded and out competed by rye. Hairy vetch has been sown with grass cover crops for many years, using the grass/ vetch combination as a hay or plowdown. BIOFUMIGANT CROPS:

are groups of plants that produce naturally-occurring fumigants (glucosinolates) that reduce the negative effects of soil borne diseases, nematodes and weeds. These crops increase soil tilth and can act as a nutrient sink. One example of a biofumigant is a cover crop called “Caliente 119.” Caliente 119 is a mixture of oilseed radish and mustard Page 9

seeds when grown can reduce nematode levels and add organic matter to the soil. Throughout much of the region these can be seeded in the fall and over-wintered or seeded in early spring. Seeding rates range from 15 to 20 lbs/A and will vary with location and seed size. These crops respond to 50 -100 lb/A N fertilizer at planting to stimulate fall growth and establishment. These crops grow rapidly and can be plowed down in 6 weeks. Only spring planting is recommended for areas where average last spring frost is May 1 or later. PLOWDOWN: Plowing early defeats the purpose of growing cover crops as little biomass will have been produced by the cover crop. In the case of legume cover crops, they require sufficient time to develop biomass which an early plowdown would prevent. If you need to plow early, use a grass cover crop (rye) that produces good fall growth and will provide maximum biomass for incorporation. Allow 3-6 weeks between plowdown and planting. SUMMER COVER CROPS: Summer cover crops can be useful in controlling weeds, soil borne diseases, and nematodes. They also provide organic matter and can improve soil tilth while reducing soil erosion. There are many potential summer cover crops available but you will need to find one that will work well in your area and overall production scheme. Sudex (sorghumsudan grass cross) (don’t allow to exceed 3 feet before mowing), Iron Clay Southern pea, millet, and lab lab are summer cover crops that provide organic matter, control erosion and enhance the soil’s natural biota.

TRANSPLANT PRODUCTION These recommendations apply to plants grown under controlled conditions IN GREENHOUSES OR HOTBEDS. (Field-grown plants are covered under the specific crop.) A transplant is affected by factors such as temperature, fertilization, water, and spac­ing. A good transplant is one that has been grown under the best possible condi­tions. Table 5 presents optimum and minimum temperatures for seed germination and plant growth, time and spacing (area) requirements, and number of plants per square foot for a number of economically important vegetable crops in the southeastern US. Commercial Plant-growing Mixes. A number of commercial media formulations are available for growing transplants. Most of these mixes will produce high-quality transplants when used with good management practices. However, these mixes can vary greatly in composition, particle size, pH, aeration, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. Avoid formulations having fine particles, as these may hold excessive water and have poor aeration. Have mix formulations tested by your state's soil test laboratory to determine the pH and the level of nutrients the mix contains.

other disease problems. If flats are to be reused, they should be thoroughly cleaned after use and completely submerged in a household bleach solution for at least 5 minutes. Use 5 gallons of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (such as Chlorox) for each 100 gallons of solution required. Permit flats to dry completely prior to use. Never treat flats with creosote or pentachloro­phenol. Plant Containers: There are a wide variety of containers available for starting seeds for transplants. Most growers start seeds either in flats or in cell packs. The main advantage of using flats is that more plants can fit into the same space if plants are in flats. However, if you start seeds in flats, you will need to transplant to larger cell packs or to individual pots as the seedlings get bigger. Seeding directly into cell packs saves time, because transplanting into a larger container later is not necessary. Cell packs come in many different cell sizes; the overall tray size is standardized. For tomatoes and peppers, 72-cell packs work well. For larger-seeded vegetables; such as cucumbers, squash, and watermelons, 48-cell packs work better. Each vegetable crop has specific cell sizes for containerized transplant production and requires a certain number of weeks before they are ready for transplanting (Table 5). For example: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards require a 0.8 to 1.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks to reach an adequate size for transplanting; cantaloupe and watermelons require a 1.0 inch cell and 3 to 4 weeks; eggplant and tomato require a 1.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks; pepper requires a 0.5 to 0.8 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks. Other options are available depending on the crop and your situation. Seed Germination. Seed that is sown in flats to be “pricked out”

at a later date should be germinated in ver­miculite (horticultural grade, coarse sand size) or a plug growing mix. However, it is recommended that no fertilizer be included in the mix or the vermicu­lite and avoid fertilizing the seedlings until the seed leaves (cotyledons) are fully expanded and the true leaves are Table 5. O ptimum and Minimum Temperatures for Transplant Production

Broccoli Cabbage Cantaloupe1 Cauliflower Cucumber

Treatment of Flats. Flats used in the production of trans­plants

Eggplants Endive & Escarole Lettuce Onions Peppers Summer squash Sweetpotato Tomatoes Watermelon, seeded Watermelon, seedless

should be new or as clean as new to avoid damping-off and

1

Page 10

°F °F Opt. Min. Weeks Day Night to Grow

65-70 60 5-7 65 60 5-7 70-75 65 3-5 65-70 60 5-8 70-75 65 2-3 70-85 65 5-8 70-75 70 5-7 60-65 40 5-6 65-70 60 8-12 70-75 60 5-8 70-75 65 2-3 75-85 ambient 4-5 65-75 60 5-6 85-90 80 3-5 85-90 85 3-6

Cantaloupe and other melons

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

begin­ning to unfold. Fertilization should be in the liquid form and at one-half the rate for any of the ratios listed in the following section on “Liquid Feeding.” Seedlings can be held for a limited time if fertilization is withheld until 3 to 4 days before “pricking out.” Seed that is sown in pots or other containers and will not be “pricked out” later can be germinated in a mix that contains fertilizer. To get earlier, more uniform emergence, germinate and grow seedlings on benches or in a floor-heated greenhouse. Germination can be aided by using germination mats which provide heat directly to the trays. With supplemental heating such as this, seedling emergence and uniformity can be enhanced decreasing the amount of time required to produce a transplant. If floor heating or benches is not available, seed the trays, water, and stack them off the floor during germination. Be sure to unstack trays before seedlings emerge. Heating and Venting. Exhaust from heaters must be vented to

the outside. It is also recommended to have an outside fresh air intake for the heaters. Be sure vents and fans are properly designed and positioned to avoid drawing exhaust gases into the greenhouse. Exhaust gases from oil and improperly adjusted gas heating systems can cause yellowing, stunting, and death of seedlings. Do not grow or hold seedlings in an area where pesticides are stored. Liquid Feeding. The following materials dissolved in 5 gallons

of water and used over an area of 20 square feet are recom­ mended for use on the transplants if needed: 20-20-20 1.2-1.6 oz/5 gal water 15-15-15 2 oz/5 gal water 15-30-15 2 oz/5 gal water Rinse leaves after liquid feeding. Fertilizers used for liquid feeding must be 100% water soluble. When transplanting to the field, use a “starter fertilizer” being sure to follow the manufacture’s recommendations.

crops, such as cool season crops, might induce bolting. Avoid overhardening or underharden­ing. Plant height can be held in check and hardening can be improved by using temperature difference in the early morning. Plants elongate most at daybreak. Raising the temperature just before daybreak (2 hours before) or lowering the temperature just after daybreak (2 hours after) by 10°F will cause plants to be shorter and more hardened. This is called DIF, because of difference in temperature. DIF can be positive or negative, but positive DIF is more commonly used for hardening transplants. DISEASE CONTROL IN PLANT BEDS For the best control of all soil-borne diseases, use a good commercial plant-growing mix. If this is not possible, use one of the following procedures: Preplant. The only practice that ensures complete sterilization of soil is the use of steam. When steam is used, a temperature of 180°F must be maintained throughout the entire mass of soil for 30 minutes. Soil treated with recommended chemicals will be pasteur­ized but rarely completely sterilized. There are a few materials which are suitable for small lots of soil such as: Chloropicrin metam sodium (Sectagon, Vapam) metam potassium (K-Pam)

For larger areas, such as plantbeds or seedbeds, the follow­ing materials are suitable: Chloropicrin Telone C-17, Telone C-35 and Telone II metam sodium (Sectagon, Vapam)

Water less in cloudy weather. Watering in the morning allows plant surfaces to dry before night and reduces the possibility of disease development.

In any case, be sure to follow the manufacture’s recommendations for use. Soil temperature should be at least 55°F, and soil moisture should be adequate for planting so that environmental condition are favorable to the overall effectiveness of the fumigant. Most soil fumigants will linger in the soil, so a 14 to 21day waiting period may be necessary. The use of a tarp covering the soil area to be treated is generally required. Nitrate forms of fer­tilizer are advisable following soil fumigation.

Hardening.

Seed Treatment. Seed treatment is important to control seed-

Watering. Keep these mixes moist but not continu­ al­ly wet.

Proper hardening of transplants, stiffens stems, and hardens the transplants increasing their survival. There are several methods used to harden transplants and the choice of which to use is often crop-dependent. At this time there are no chemical growth regulators available for use in producing vegetable transplants. The two common methods used to harden are reducing water and altering the ambient temperatures. Combinations of these two methods are often used. Reducing the amount of water used and lowering tempera­tures cause a check in growth (hardening) to prepare plants for field setting. Never reduce or limit fertilizer as a means to harden transplants because it can delay maturity. Low temperature causes chill­ing injury that can damage plants and delay regrowth after transplanting Caution: Lowering air temperature on some Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

borne diseases. Use of untreated seed could lead to diseases in the plant bed which could reduce plant stands or result in diseased transplants and potential crop failure. See the specific crop sections of this handbook for specific seed treatment recommendations. Postplant. Damping-off and foliar diseases can be a problem in plant beds. To prevent these diseases, it may be necessary to apply fungicide sprays especially as plants become crowded in plant beds. Refer to label clear­ance before use. The use of sphagnum moss as a top dressing will reduce damping-off because it keeps the surface dry.

Page 11

SEED STORAGE AND HANDLING

Both high temperature and relative humidity will reduce seed germination and vigor. Do not store seed in areas that have a combined temperature and humidity value greater than 100 [e.g., 50°F + 50% relative humidity]. In addition, primed seed does not store well after shipment to the buyer. Therefore, if you do not use all the primed seed ordered in the same season, have the seed tested before planting in subsequent seasons. Corn, pea, and bean seed are especially susceptible to mechanical damage due to rough handling. Bags of these seed should not be dropped or thrown because the seed coats can crack and seed embryos can be damaged, resulting in a nonviable seed. When treating seed with a fungicide, inoculum, or other chemical, use only gentle agitation to avoid seed damage. PLANT POPULATIONS

For vegetable seed sizes and plant populations see Tables 6 and 7.

Table 6. VEGETABLE SEED SIZES Crop

Seeds/Unit Weight

Asparagus 13,000-20,000/lb

Beans: small seeded lima large seeded lima snap

1,150-1,450/lb 440-550/lb 1,600-2,200/lb

Beets 24,000-26,000/lb Broccoli 8,500-9,000/oz Brussels sprouts

8,500-9,000/oz

Cabbage 8,500-9,000/oz Cantaloupes 16,000-19,000/lb

Carrots 300,000-400,000/lb Cauliflower 8,900-10,000/oz

Collards 7,500-8,500/oz Cucumbers 15,000-16,000/lb

Eggplants 6,000-6,500/oz Endive, Escarole

22,000-26,000/oz

Crop

IRRIGATION

Basic Principles. Vegetables are 80 to 90% water. Because they contain so much water, their yield and quality suffer rapidly from drought. Irrigation is likely to increase size and weight of individual fruit and to prevent defects like toughness, strong flavor, poor tipfill and podfill, cracking, blossom-end rot, and misshapen fruit. On the other hand, too much irrigation reduces soluble solids in cantaloupes and other small melons and capsaicin in hot peppers if over applied during fruit development. Growers often wait too long to begin irrigating, thinking “It will rain tomorrow.” This often results in severe stress for the portion of the field that dries out first or receives irrigation last. Another common problem is trying to stretch the acreage that can reasonably be covered by available equipment. Both of these practices result in part or all of the field being in water stress. It is best that a good job be done on some of the acreage rather than a “half-way job” being done on all the acreage.

Drought stress can begin in as little as 3 days after a 1-inch rain or irrigation in such a crop as tomato in soils throughout the Southeast. Frequent irrigation is critical for maximum yield. Up to 1.5 inches of water is needed each week during hot periods to maintain vegetable crops that have a plant spread of 12 inches or Seeds/Unit Weight

Crop

Kale 7,500-8,900/oz Kohlrabi 9,000/oz Leeks 170,000-180,000/lb

Lettuce: head leaf

20,000-25,000/oz 25,000-31,000/oz

Mustard 15,000-17,000/oz

Okra 8,000/lb

Onions: bulb bunching

105,000-144,000/lb 180,000-200,000/lb

Parsnips 192,000/oz Parsley 240,000-288,000/lb

Peas 1,440-2,580/lb Peppers 4,000-4,700/oz Pumpkins 1,900-3,200/lb

Seeds/Unit Weight

Radishes 40,000-50,000/lb Rutabaga 150,000-192,000/lb Spinach 40,000-50,000/lb

Squash: summer 3,500-4,800/lb winter 1,600-4,000/lb Sweet corn: normal and sugary enhanced 1,800-2,500/lb supersweet (sh2) 3,000-5,000/lb Tomatoes: fresh 10,000-11,400/oz processing 160,000-190,000/lb Turnip 150,000-200,000/lb

Watermelons: small seed large seed

8,000-10,400/lb 3,200-4,800/lb

Table 7. POPULATION OF PLANTS PER ACRE AT SEVERAL BETWEEN-ROW AND IN-ROW SPACINGS Between-row spacing (in.)

2 4 6 8 7 448,046 224,023 149,349 112,011 12 261,360 130,680 87,120 65,340 18 174,240 87,120 58,080 43,560 21 149,349 74,674 49,783 37,337 24 130,680 65,340 43,560 32,670 30 104,544 52,272 34,848 26,136 36 (3 ft) 87,120 43,560 29,040 21,780 42 (3.5 ft) 74,674 37,337 24,891 18,669 48 (4 ft) 65,340 32,670 21,780 16,335 60 (5 ft) 17,424 13,068 72 (6 ft) 14,520 10,890 84 (7 ft) 12,446 9,334 96 (8 ft) 10,890 8,167 Page 12

10 89,609 52,272 34,848 29,870 26,136 20,909 17,424 14,934 13,068 10,454 8,712 7,467 6,534

In-row spacing (in.)

12 74,674 43,560 29,040 24,891 21,780 17,424 14,520 12,446 10,890 8,712 7,260 6,223 5,445

14 64,006 37,337 24,891 21,336 18,669 14,935 12,446 10,668 9,334 7,467 6,223 5,334 4,667

16

18

32,670 21,780 18,669 16,335 13,068 10,890 9,334 8,167 6,534 5,445 4,667 4,084

29,040 19,360 16,594 14,520 11,616 9,680 8,297 7,260 5,808 4,840 4,149 3,630

24

30

36

48

21,780 17,424 14,520 10,890 14,520 11,616 9,680 7,260 12,446 9,957 8,297 6,223 10,890 8,712 7,260 5,445 8,712 6,970 5,808 4,356 7,260 5,808 4,840 3,630 6,223 4,978 4,149 3,111 5,445 4,356 3,630 2,722 4,356 3,485 2,904 2,178 3,630 2,904 2,420 1,815 3,111 2,489 2,074 1,556 2,722 2,178 1,815 1,361

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

more. This need decreases to 0.75 inches per week during cooler seasons. Droplet size and irrigation rate are also important in vegetable crops. Large droplets resulting from low pressure at the sprinkler head can cause damage to young vegetable plants and can contribute to soil crusting when soils dry. Water is more readily held in clay soils, however, clay soils have a lower water infiltration rate as compared to sandy soils. Irrigation rate is dependent on soil type, and application rates should follow values in Table 10. Depending on the soil structure, high application rates will result in irrigation water running off the field, contributing to erosion and fertilizer runoff particularly on heavy clay soils.. Even relatively short periods of inadequate soil moisture can adversely affect many crops. Thus, irrigation is beneficial in most years, since rainfall is rarely uniformly distributed even in years with above-average precipitation. Moisture deficien­cies occurring early in the crop cycle may delay maturity and reduce yields. Shortages later in the season often lower quality and yield. However, over-irrigating, especially late in the season, can reduce quality and postharvest life of the crop. Table 8 shows the critial periods of crop growth when an adequate supply of water is essential for the production of high-quality vegetables. Applying the proper amount of water at the correct time is critical for achieving the optimum benefits from irriga­tion. The crop water requirement, termed evapotranspiration, or ET, is equal to the quantity of water lost from the plant (transpiration) plus that evaporated from the soil surface. The ET rate is important in effectively scheduling irrigations. Numerous factors must be considered when estimating ET. The amount of solar radiation, which provides the energy to evaporate moisture from the soil and plant surfaces, is the major factor. Other factors include crop growth stage, day length, air temperature, wind speed, and humidity level. Table 8. C RITICAL PERIODS OF WATER NEED FOR VEGETABLE CROP Crop

Critical Period

Asparagus Brush Beans, Lima Pollination and pod development Beans, Snap Pod enlargement Broccoli Head development Cabbage Head development Carrots Root enlargement Cauliflower Head development Corn Silking and tasseling, ear development Cucumbers Flowering and fruit development Eggplants Flowering and fruit development Lettuce Head development Melons Flowering and fruit development Onions, Dry Bulb enlargement Peas, Southern Seed enlargement and flowering and English Peppers Flowering and fruit development Potatoes, Irish Tuber set and tuber enlargement Radishes Root enlargement Squash, Summer Bud development and flowering Sweetpotato Root enlargement Tomatoes Early flowering, fruit set, and enlargement Turnips Root enlargement Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Plant factors that affect ET are crop species; canopy size and shape; leaf size, and shape. Soil factors must also be considered. Soils having high levels of silt, clay, and organic matter have greater water-holding capacities than sandy soils or compacted soils (Table 9). Soils with high water-holding capacities require less frequent irrigation than soils with low water-holding capacities. When such soils are irrigated less frequently, a greater amount of water must be applied per application. Another soil factor influencing irrigation practices is the soil infiltration rate. Water should not be applied to soils at a rate greater than the rate at which soils can absorb water. Table 10 lists the typical infiltration rates of several soils. There is no simple method to accurately schedule irriga­tion because all the above factors interact to determine water loss. The following factors should be kept in mind when deciding when and how much to irrigate: 1. Soils vary greatly in water-holding capacity and infiltra­tion rate. Silt and clay soils and those high in organic matter can hold much more water than sandy soils low in organic matter. 2. Water loss from plants is much greater on clear, hot, windy days than on cool, overcast days. During periods of hot, dry weather, ET rates may reach 0.25 inch per day or higher. ET can be estimated by the use of a standard evaporation pan. (Check with Extension for information on using evaporation pans.) 3. Recent research indicates that maintaining soil moisture levels in a narrow range, just slightly below field capacity (75% to 90% available soil moisture), maximizes crop growth. This may mean that more frequent irrigations of smaller amounts are better than delaying irrigations until the soil moisture reaches a lower level (40% to 50% available soil moisture) and then applying a heavy irrigation. Table 9. AVAILABLE WATER-HOLDING CAPACITY BASED ON SOIL TEXTURE

Available Water Holding Capacity

Soil Texture Coarse sand Fine sand Loamy sand Sandy loam Fine sandy loam Loam and silt loam Clay loam and silty clay loam Silty clay and clay

(water/inches of soil) 0.02–0.06 0.04–0.09 0.06–0.12 0.11–0.15 0.14–0.18 0.17–0.23 0.14–0.21 0.13–0.18

Table 10. S OIL INFILTRATION RATES BASED ON SOIL TEXTURE

Soil Texture

Coarse sand Fine sand Fine sandy loam Silt loam Clay loam

Soil Infiltration Rate (inch/hour) 0.75–1.00 0.50–0.75 0.35–0.50 0.25–0.40 0.10–0.30

Page 13

4. Plastic mulches reduce evaporation from the soil but also reduce the amount of rainwater that can reach the root zone. Thus, much of the natural precipitation should be ignored when scheduling irrigations for crops grown under plastic mulch. Drip Irrigation. Drip irrigation is a method of slowly applying small amounts of water directly to the plant's root zone. Water is applied frequently, often daily, to maintain favorable soil moisture conditions. The primary advantage of drip irrigation systems is that less water is used than with sprinkler or surface irrigation systems. In many cases, one-half of the water applied with sprinkler or surface systems is required with drip systems. In addition, fertilizers applied through the drip irrigation system are conserved along with water. Drip irrigation is used on a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. It is especially effective when used with mulches; on sandy soils; and on high value crops, such as cantaloupes, watermelons, squash, peppers, eggplants, and tomatoes. Drip irrigation systems also have several other advantages over sprinkler and surface irrigation systems. Low flow rates and operating pressures are typical of drip systems. These characteristics lead to lower energy costs. Once in place, drip systems require little labor to operate, can be automatically controlled, and can be managed to apply the precise amount of water and nutrients needed by the crop. These factors also reduce operating costs. Drip irrigation reduces the splashing of soil onto plants and does not wet plants reducing the incidence of disease as compared to overhead irrigation. The areas between rows also remain dry reducing weed growth between rows and reducing the amount of water lost to weeds. In addition, field opera­tions can continue during irrigation. Table 11. HOURS REQUIRED TO APPLY 1" WATER TO MULCHED AREA Drip Tape Flow Rate (gph/100 ft) (gpm/100 ft) 8 0.13 10 0.17 12 0.20 16 0.27 18 0.30 20 0.33 24 0.40 30 0.50 36 0.60 40 0.67 42 0.70 48 0.80 50 0.83 54 0.90 60 1.00

Page 14

Mulched Width (ft) 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 15.5 19.5 23.5 27.0 31.0 12.5 16.5 18.5 22.0 25.0 10.5 13.0 15.5 18.0 21.0 8.0 10.0 11.5 13.5 15.5 7.0 8.5 10.5 12.0 14.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 11.0 12.5 5.0 6.5 8.0 9.0 10.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 3.5 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.5 6.0 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

There are several potential problems unique to drip irrigation systems. Most drip systems require a higher level of management than other irrigation systems. Moisture distribution in the soil is limited with drip systems. In most cases, a smaller soil water reserve is available to plants. Under these conditions, the potential to stress plants is greater than with other types of irrigation systems. In order to use drip irrigation successfully, the system must be carefully managed and maintained. The equipment used in drip irrigation systems can present potential problems and drawbacks. Drip irrigation tape and tubing can be damaged by insects, rodents, and laborers, and often has a higher initial invest­ment cost than other irrigation system types. Pressure regulation and filtration require equipment not commonly used with sprinkler or surface systems. The drip system, including pump, headers, filters, and connections, must be checked and be ready to operate before planting. Failure to have the system operational could result in costly delays, poor plant survival or irregular stands, and reduced yield. Calculating the length of time required to apply a specific depth of water with a drip irrigation system is more difficult than with sprinklers. Unlike sprinkler systems, drip systems apply water to only a small portion of the total crop acreage. Usually, a fair assumption to make is that the mulched width approximates the extent of the plant root zone and should be used to calculate system run-times. Table 11 calculates the length of time required to apply 1-inch of water with a drip­irrigation system based on the drip tape flow rate and the mulched width. The use of this table requires that the drip system be operat­ing at the pressure listed in the manufacturer’s specifications. In many cases, it is inappropriate to apply more than 0.25 inch of water at a time with drip irrigation systems. Doing so can move water below the plant's root zone, carrying nutrients Table 12. M AXIMUM IRRIGATION PERIODS (HOURS) FOR DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Soil Texture Drip Tape Flow Rate Silt Sandy (gph/100 ft) (gpm/100 ft) Sand Loamy Loam Clay Loam 12 0.2 5.0 8.0 11.5 15.5 17.5 18 0.3 3.5 5.0 7.5 10.5 11.5 24 0.4 2.5 4.0 5.5 8.0 8.5 30 0.5 2.0 3.0 4.5 6.5 7.0 36 0.6 1.5 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 42 0.7 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.5 5.0 48 0.8 1.5 2.0 3.0 . 4.5

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

and pesticides beyond the reach of the plant's roots. Table 12 calculates the maximum recom­mended irrigation period for drip irrigation systems. The periods listed in Table 12 are based on the flow rate of the drip tape and texture of the soil. Soil texture directly influences the water-holding capacity of soils and, there­ fore, the depth reached by irrigation water. In drip systems, water is carried through plastic tape (which expands when water flows through it) and distributed along the tape through devices called emitters. The pressure-reducing flow path also allows the emitter to remain relatively large, allowing particles that could clog an emitter to be discharged. Although modern emitter design reduces the potential for trapping small particles, emitter clogging can be a common problem with drip irrigation systems. Clogging can be attributed to physical, chemical, or biological contaminants. Filtration and occasional water treatment may be necessary to keep drip sys­tems from clogging. Further information on drip­irrigation systems can be obtained from manufacturers, dealers, and Extension. Chlorination. Bacteria can grow inside drip irriga­tion tapes,

forming a slime that can clog emitters. Algae present in surface waters can also clog emitters. Bacteria and algae can be effectively controlled by chlorination of the drip system. Periodic treatment before clogs develop can keep the system functioning efficiently. The frequency of treatment depends on the quality of the water source. Generally two or three treatments per season are adequate. Irrigation water containing high concentrations of iron (greater than 1 ppm) can also cause clogging problems due to a type of bacteria that “feeds” on iron. In consuming the dissolved (ferrous) form of iron, the bacteria secrete a slime called ochre, which may combine with other solid particles in the drip tape and plug emit­ters. The precipitated (ferric) form of iron, known commonly as rust, can also physically clog emitters. In treating water containing iron, chlorine will oxidize the iron dissolved in water, causing the iron to precipitate so that it can be filtered and removed from the system. Chlorine treatment should take place upstream of filters in order to remove the precipitated iron and microorganisms from the system. Chlorine is available as a gas, liquid, or solid. Chlorine gas is extremely dangerous and not recommended for agricultural purposes. Solid chlorine is available as granules or tablets containing 65% to 70% calcium hypochlorite but might react with other elements in irrigation water to form precipitates which could clog emitters. Liquid chlorine is available in many forms, including household bleach (sodium hypochlorite), and is the easiest and often safest form to use for injection. Stock solutions can be bought that have concentrations of 5.25%, 10%, or 15% available chlorine. Use chlorine only if the product is labeled for use in irrigation systems. Since chlorination is most effective at pH 6.5 to 7.5, some commercial chlorination equipment also injects buffers to maintain optimum pH for effective kill of microorganisms. This type of equipment is more expensive, but more effective than simply injecting sodium hypochlorite solution. The required rate of chlorine injection is dependent on the amount of microorganisms present in the water source, the amount of iron in the irrigation water, and the method of treatVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

ment being used. To remove iron from irrigation water, start by injecting 1 ppm of chlorine for each 1 ppm of iron present in the water. For iron removal, chlorine should be injected continuously. Adequate mixing of the water with chlorine is essential. For this reason, be certain to mount the chlorine injector a distance upstream from filters. An elbow between the injector and the filter will ensure adequate mixing. For treatment of algae and bacteria, a chlorine injection rate that results in the presence of 1 to 2 ppm of “free” chlorine at the end of the furthest lateral will assure that the proper amount of chlorine is being injected. Free, or residual, chlorine can be tested using an inexpensive DPD (diethyl-phenylene-diamine) test kit. A swimming pool test kit can be used, but only if it measures free chlorine. Many pool test kits only measure total chlorine. If a chlorine test kit is unavailable, one of the following schemes is suggested as a starting point: For iron treatment: • Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of 1 ppm for each 1 ppm of iron in irrigation water. In most cases, 3 to 5 ppm is sufficient. For bacteria and algae treatment: • Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of 5 to 10 ppm where the biological load is high. • Inject 10 to 20 ppm during the last 30 minutes of each irrigation cycle where the biological load is medium. • Inject 50 ppm during the last 30 minutes of irrigation cycles two times each month when biological load is low. • Superchlorinate (inject at a rate of 200 to 500 ppm) once per month for the length of time required to fill the entire system with this solution and shut down the system. After 24 hours, open the laterals and flush the lines. The injection rates for stock solutions that contain 5.25%, 10% and 15% can be calculated from the following equations: For 5.25% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 971. For a 10% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 1850. For a 15% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine, gph = [(Desired available chlorination level, ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate, gpm)] divided by 2775.

Page 15

It is important to note that chlorine will cause water pH to rise. This is critical because chlorine is most effective in acidic water. If your water pH is above 7.5 before injection, it must be acidified for chlorine injection to be effective. Important Notes.

- Approved backflow control valves, low pressure drains, and interlocks must be used in the injection system to prevent contamination of the water source. - Chlorine concentrations above 30 ppm may kill plants. Fertilization. Before considering a fertilization program for

mulched-drip irrigated crops, be sure to have the soil pH checked. If a liming material is needed to increase the soil pH, the material should be applied and incorporated into the soil as far ahead of mulching as practical. For most vege­tables, adjust the soil pH to around 6.5. When using drip irrigation in combination with mulch, apply the recommended amount of preplant fertilizer and incorporate it 5 to 6 inches into the soil before laying the mulch. If equip­ment is available, apply the preplant fertilizer to the soil area that will be covered by the mulch. This is more efficient than a broadcast application to the entire field. The most efficient method of fertilizing an established mulched crop is through a drip irrigation system, which is installed during the mulching operation. Due to the very small holes or orifices in the drip tape, high quality liquid fertilizers, or water-soluble fertilizers must be used. Since phosphorous is a stable non-mobile soil nutrient and can cause clogging of the drip tape emitters, it is best to apply 100% of the crop's phosphorous needs pre-plant. Additionally, apply 20 to 40% of the crops’s nitrogen and potassium needs pre-plant. The remainder of the crop's nutrient needs can be applied through the drip system with a high quality liquid fertilizer such as 8–0–8, 7–0–7, or 10–0–10. Generally, it is not necessary to add micronutrients through the drip system. Micronutrients can be best and most economically applied pre-plant or as foliar application if needed. The amount of nutrients to apply through the drip system depends upon the plant’s growth stage. In general, smaller amounts of nutrients are needed early in the plant’s growth with peak demand occurring during fruit maturation. The frequency of nutrient application is most influenced by the soil's nutrient holding capabilities. Clay soils with a high nutrient holding capacity could receive weekly nutrient applications through the drip system while a sandy soil with low nutrient holding capacity will respond best with a daily fertigation program. Fertigation rates are provided under crop specific recommendations later in this handbook. MULCHES AND ROW COVERS

Mulches. The most widely used mulches for vegetable produc-

tion are black, white on black, clear and metalized polyethylene mulches. Black mulch is most widely used for spring applications where both elevated soil temperatures and weed control are desired. Clear plastic mulch is used when maximum heat accumulation is desired and weed control is not as critical. Page 16

White on black plastic (with white-side of plastic facing up) is used for late spring and summer plantings where the benefits of moisture retention and weed control are valued and heat accumulation may be detrimental. Growers often will apply white latex paint to black mulch when double cropping. Metallized mulch, commonly referred to as reflective or silver mulch, is used to combat aphids and thrips that vector viral diseases. Metalized mulch should reflect a recognizable image (that is, be mirror-like) to be most effective. Organic mulches such as straw, pine straw, compost, and coarse hay provide weed control and moisture retention and keep soils cooler than bare ground. Using hay often introduces weeds into a field. One benefit of using organic mulches is that they add organic matter to the soil when incorporated after the growing season. When using these mulches, supplemental nitrogen may be needed to compensate for the nitrogen that is lost to soil microbes in the process of breaking down the organic mulch. Bed conformation and moisture are critical to the success of growing vegetables with plastic mulch. Beds should be smooth, free of clods and sticks, and of uniform height. Black plastic mulch warms the soil by conduction, so as much contact as possible should be made between the mulch and soil. Raised beds allow the soil to drain and warm more quickly. Drip tape is commonly laid under the plastic in the same field operation. The soil should be moist when the plastic is applied since it is difficult to add enough water to thoroughly wet the width of the bed when using drip irrigation. Steep slopes may limit row length when using drip tape, normally row lengths should not exceed 300 to 600 feet depending on the specifications of drip tape. Follow label directions for fumigants and herbicides used with plastic mulches. Fumigants have a waiting period before seeds or transplants can be planted. Transplanters and seeders are available to plant through plastic mulch. In fields with a history of nutsedge, appropriate measures must be taken in order to reduce or eliminate infestations as plastic mulches cannot control nutsedge. Nutsedge will compromise plastic mulch by piercing it. Fertilizer. Vegetables produced on plastic mulch, but without the

ability to supply nutrients through the drip system, should have all of their required fertilizer incorporated into the beds prior to applying the mulch. Broadcasting the fertilizer before bedding has been shown to be an effective method of application since the bedding process moves most of the fertilizer into the bed. Growers using fertigation should follow the recommendations for each specific crop. Fertigation schedules are listed for cantaloupe, cucumber, eggplant, okra, pepper, summer squash, tomato, and watermelon later in this handbook. Double cropping. Growers frequently grow two crops on black plastic mulch. The spring crop is killed and removed, then the plastic is generally painted with white latex paint diluted with water (1 part paint to 5 parts water). After painting, a second crop is planted through the mulch. The new crop should be planted into new holes and fertilizer added based on soil test results and the double crop’s nutrient requirements. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Plastic mulch removal and disposal. Commercial mulch lifters

are available. Plastic can be removed by hand by running a coulter down the center of the row and picking the mulch up from each side. Sanitary landfills may accept plastic mulch in some areas. There are a few recycling projects which accept plastic mulch. Some states allow burning of mulch with a permit. Row covers. Row covers are used to hasten the maturity of the

crop, exclude certain insect pests, and provide a small degree of frost protection. There are two main types of row covers: vented clear or translucent polyethylene that is sup­port­ed by wire hoops placed at regular (5 to 6 ft) intervals, and float­ing row covers that are porous, light­weight spunbonded materials placed loosely over the plants. In addition, plastic can be placed loosely over the plants with or without wire supports. Floating covers are more applica­ ble to the low-growing vine crops. Upright plants like tomatoes and peppers have been injured by abrasion when the floating row cover rubs against the plant or excess temperatures build-up. Erratic spring temperatures require intensive management of row covers to avoid blossom shed and other high temperature injuries. In particular, clear plastic can greatly increase air tem­ peratures under the cover on warm sunny days, resulting in a danger of heat injury to crop plants. Therefore, vented materials are recommended. Even with vents, clear plastic has pro­duced heat injury, especially when the plants have filled a large por­tion of the air space in the tunnel. This has not been observed with the translucent materials. Usually, row covers are combined with plastic mulch. Considerations for Using Mulch, Drip Irrigation, and Row Covers. Each grower considering mulches, drip irrigation, and/

or row covers must weigh the economics involved. The longterm versus short-term opportunities must be considered. Does the potential increase in return justify the additional costs? Are the odds in favor of the grower getting the most benefit in terms of earliness and yield from the mulch, drip irrigation, and/or row covers? Does the market usual­ly offer price incen­tives for early produce? Will harvesting early allow compet­ition against produce from other regions? For planting on 5 to 6-foot centers, polyethylene mulch costs $200 to $250 per acre, respectively When using plastic mulch, drip irrigation must also be used. With 5 to 6-foot centers, drip irrigation materials will cost $300 to $350 per acre, respectively. Row covers can cost over $400 per acre. Growers must determine these costs for their situations and calculate their potential returns. POLLINATION European honeybees and native wild bees visit the flowers of several flowering vegetables. Cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, and watermelons have separate male and female flowers, while cantaloupes and other small melons have male and hermaphroditic (perfect or bisexual) flowers. The sticky pollen of the male flowers must be transferred to the female flowers to achieve Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

fruit set. One to two hives of bees per acre will increase the yield of cucurbits. Lack of ade­quate polli­na­tion usual­ly results in small or misshapen fruit in addi­tion to low yields. The size and shape of the mature fruit is related to the number of seeds produced by pollination; each seed re­quires one or more pollen grains. Even though bumblebees and other species of wild bees are excellent pollinators, populations of these native pol­linators usually are not adequate for large acreages grown for commercial production. Colonies of wild honeybees have been decimated by Tracheal and Varroa mites and cannot be counted on to aid in pollination. The best way to ensure adequate pollination is to own or rent strong colonies of honey bee from a reliable beekeeper. Commercial bee attractants, have not proven to be effective in enhancing pollination. Growers are advised to increase numbers of bee colonies and not to rely on such attractants. Bees are essential for commercial production of all vine crops and may improve the yield and quality of fruit in beans, eggplants, peas, and peppers. Moving honeybees into the crop at the correct time will greatly enhance pollination. Cucurbit flowers are usually open and attractive to bees for only a day or less. The opening of the flower, release of pollen, and commence­ment of nectar secretion normally precede bee activity. Pumpkin, squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon flowers normally open around daybreak and close by noon; whereas, cucum­bers, and melons generally remain open the entire day. Pollination must take place on the day the flowers open because pollen viability, stigmatic receptivity, and attrac­tiveness to bees lasts only that day. Honeybee activity is determined, to a great extent, by weather and conditions within the hive. Bees rarely fly when the temperature is below 55°F. Flights seldom intensify until the temperature reaches 70°F. Wind speed beyond 15 miles per hour seriously slows bee activity. Cool, cloudy weather and threatening storms greatly reduce bee flights. In poor weather, bees foraging at more distant locations will remain in the hive, and only those that have been foraging nearby will be active. Ideally, colonies should be protected from wind and be exposed to the sun from early morning until evening. Colony entrances facing east or southeast encourage bee flight. The hives should be off the ground and the front entrances kept free of grass and weeds. For best results, hives should be grouped together. A clean water supply should be available within a quarter mile of the hive. The number of colonies needed for adequate pollination varies with location, attractiveness of crop, density of flowers, length of blooming period, colony strength, and competing blossoms of other plants in the area. In vine crops, recommendations are one to two colonies per acre, with the higher number for higher density plantings. Each hive or colony should contain at least 40,000 - 50,000 bees. Multiple bee visits of eight or more visits per flower are required to produce marketable fruit. When hybrid cucumbers are grown at high plant populations for machine harvesting, flowers require 15 to 20 visits for maximum fruit set. Generally, as the number of visits increase, there will be an increase in the numbers of fruit set and number of seed per fruit, as well as improved fruit shape and fruit weight. Insecticides applied during bloom are a serious threat to bees Page 17

visiting flowers. If insecticides must be applied, select an insecticide that will give effective control of the target pest but pose the least danger to bees. Apply these chemicals near evening when the bees are not actively foraging and avoid spraying adjacent crops. Give the beekeeper 48 hours notice, if possible, when you expect to spray so that necessary precautions can be taken. Avoid leaving puddles of water around chemical mixing areas, as bees pick up water, which may result in bee kills. A written contract between the grower and beekeeper can prevent misunderstandings and, thus, ensure better pollina­tion service. Such a contract should specify the number and strength of colonies, the rental fee, time of delivery, and distribution of bees in the field. CALIBRATING CHEMICAL APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Purpose

To determine if the proper amount of chemical is being applied, the operator must measure the output of the application equipment. This technique is known as calibration. Calibration not only ensures accuracy, a critical factor with regard to many chemicals, but it can also save time and money and benefit the environment. Getting Started

Careful and accurate control of ground speed is important for any type of chemical application procedure. From large self-propelled sprayers and spreaders to small walk-behind or backpack units, precise ground speed is a key for success. Ground speed can be determined by one of two methods. The first method requires a test course and stopwatch. For this procedure, measure a suitable test course in the field and record the time it takes to cover the course with the equipment. The course should be between 100 and 300 feet long. Drive or walk the course at least twice, once in each direction and average the times for greater accuracy. Calculate the speed with Equation 1 below. Equation 1. Ground Speed (MPH) = Distance x 60 Seconds x 88

The second method is to use a true ground speed indicator such as a tractor-mounted radar or similar system. Do not rely on transmission speed charts and engine tachometers. They are not accurate enough for calibration. CALIBRATING A SPRAYER: Preparing to Calibrate

For calibration to be successful, several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Whenever possible, calibration should be performed using water only. If you must calibrate using spray mixture, calibrate the equipment on a site listed on the chemical label and with wind speeds less than 5 MPH. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration. Page 18

1. Inspect the sprayer. Be sure all components are in good working order and undamaged. On backpack sprayers, pay particular attention to the pump, control wand, strainers, and hoses. On boom sprayers, pay attention to the pump, control valves, strainers, and hoses. On airblast sprayers, be sure to inspect the fan and air tubes or deflectors as well. Be sure there are no obstructions or leaks in the sprayer. 2. Check the label of the product or products to be applied and record the following: • Application Rate, Gallons per Acre (GPA) • Nozzle Type, droplet size and shape of pattern • Nozzle Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch (PSI) • Type of Application, broadcast, band, or directed 3. Next, determine some information about the sprayer and how it is to be operated. This includes: • Type of Sprayer: backpack, boom, or airblast. The type of sprayer may suggest the type of calibration procedure to use. • Nozzle Spacing (inches): for broadcast applications, nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. • Nozzle Spray Width (inches): For broadcast applications, nozzle spray width is the same as nozzle spacing—the distance between nozzles. For band applications, use the width of the sprayed band if the treated area in the band is specified on the chemical label; use nozzle spacing if the total area is specified. For directed spray applications, use the row spacing divided by the number of nozzles per row. Some directed spray applications use more than one type or size of nozzle per row. In this case, the nozzles on each row are added together and treated as one. Spray width would be the row spacing. In most cases, a backpack sprayer uses a single nozzle. Some sprayers use mini-booms or multiple nozzles. The spray width is the effective width of the area sprayed, being sure to account for overlap. If you are using a sweeping motion from side to side, be sure to use the full width sprayed as you walk forward. If you are spraying on foliage in a row, use the row spacing. Dyes are available to blend with the spray to show what has been covered. • Spray Swath (feet): The width covered by all the nozzles on the boom of a sprayer. For airblast or other boomless sprayers, it is the effective width covered in one pass through the field. • Ground Speed, miles per hour (MPH). When using a backpack sprayer, walk a comfortable pace that is easy to maintain. Slow walking speeds will take longer to complete the task while high speeds may be tiresome. Choose a safe, comfortable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. On tractor-mounted sprayers, select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of sprayer used. Slow speeds will take longer to complete the task, while high speeds may be difficult to control and unsafe. Choose a safe, controllable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. Ground speed can be determined from Equation 1.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

4. The discharge rate, gallons per minute (GPM), required for the nozzles must be calculated in order to choose the right nozzle size. Discharge rate depends on the application rate; ground speed; and nozzle spacing, spray width, or spray swath. For applications using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width (inches), use Equation 2. Equation 2. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width 5,940

For applications using the spray swath (feet): Equation 3. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Ground Speed x Spray Swath 495

5. Choose an appropriate nozzle or nozzles from the manufacturer’s charts and install them on the sprayer. Check each nozzle to be sure it is clean and that the proper strainer is installed with it. 6. Fill the tank half full of water and adjust the nozzle pressure to the recommended setting. Measure the discharge rate for the nozzle. This can be done by using a flow meter or by using a collection cup and stopwatch. The flow meter should read in gallons per minute (GPM). If you are using the collection cup and stopwatch method, the following equation is helpful to convert ounces collected and collection time, in seconds, into gallons per minute. Equation 4. Discharge Rate = Ounces Collected x 60 Collection Time x 128

7. Whenever possible, calibrate with water instead of spray solution. Do not calibrate with spray solution unless required by the chemical label. Follow all recommendations on the label. If the spray solution has a density different than water, the rate can be corrected using the procedure shown in Calibration Variables. 8. On boom sprayers or sprayers with multiple nozzles, average the discharge rates of all the nozzles on the sprayer. Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or less than the overall average. Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output. Calculate a new average and recheck the nozzles compared to the new average. Again, reject any nozzle that is 10 percent more or less than the average or has a bad pattern. When finished, select a nozzle that is closest to the average to use later as your “quick check” nozzle.

less than the advertised rate. Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output. Once the sprayer has been properly prepared for calibration, select a calibration method. When calibrating a sprayer, changes are often necessary to achieve the application rates needed. The sprayer operator needs to understand the changes that can be made to the adjust rate and the limits of each adjustment. The adjustments and the recommended approach are: • Pressure: if the error in application rate is less than 10 percent, adjust the pressure. • Ground speed: if the error is greater than 10 percent but less than 25 percent, change the ground speed of the sprayer. • Nozzle size: if the error is greater than 25 percent, change nozzle size. The goal is to have application rate errors less than 5 percent. CALIBRATION METHODS There are four methods commonly used to calibrate a sprayer: The basic, nozzle, and 128th acre methods are “time-based methods” which require using a stopwatch or watch with a second hand to ensure accuracy. The area method is based on spraying a test course measured in the field. Each method offers certain advantages. Some are easier to use with certain types of sprayers. For example, the basic and area methods can be used with any type of sprayer. The 128th acre and nozzle methods work well for boom and backpack sprayers. Choose a method you are comfortable with and use it whenever calibration is required. Basic Method

1. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the basic method. For tractor-mounted sprayers, set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. For backpack sprayers, walk the course and measure the time required. Walk across the course at least twice. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1. 2. Calculate the application rate based on the average discharge rate measured for the nozzles, the ground speed over the test course, and the nozzle spacing, nozzle spray width, or spray swath on the sprayer. When using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width measured in inches, use the following equation: Equation 5. Application Rate = 5,940 x Discharge Rate Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width

On backpack sprayers or sprayers with a single nozzle, compare the discharge rate of the nozzle on the sprayer to the manufacturer’s tables for that nozzle size. Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 19

For spray swath applications measured in feet: Equation 6. Application Rate = 495 x Discharge Rate Ground Speed x Spray Swath

3. Compare the application rate calculated to the rate required. If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the sprayer. 4. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete. Nozzle Method

1. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the nozzle method. For tractor-mounted sprayers, set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. For backpack sprayers, walk the course and measure the time required. Walk across the course at least twice. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1. 2. Calculate the nozzle discharge rate based on the application rate required the ground speed over the test course, and the nozzle spacing, spray width, or spray swath of the sprayer. For nozzle spacing or spray width measured in inches. Equation 7. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Speed x Spray Width 5,940

For spray swath measured in feet: Equation 8. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Speed x Spray Swath 495

at least twice and average the time to cover the course. 3. For backpack sprayers, collect the output from the nozzle for the time measured in step 2. For tractor-mounted sprayers, park the sprayer, select the nozzle closest to the average, and collect the output for the time determined in step 4. Ounces collected will equal application rate in GPA. 4. Compare the application rate measured for the nozzle to the rate determined in step 3. If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system. 5. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete. Area Method

1. Determine the distance that can be sprayed by one tank using the full spray swath measured in feet. Equation 10. Tank Spray Distance (ft) = Tank Volume (gal) x 43,560 Application Rate (GPA) x Swath (ft)

2. Lay out a test course that is at least 10 percent of the tank spray distance from Step 1. Fill the sprayer tank with water only, mark the level in the tank, set the sprayer as recommended, and spray the water out on the course. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed. 3. After spraying the test course, carefully measure the volume of water required to refill the tank to the original level. Calculate the application rate as shown: Equation 11. Application Rate (GPA) = Volume Sprayed (gal) x 43,560 Test Course Distance (ft) x Swath (ft)

Set the sprayer and determine the average nozzle rate. 3. Compare the rate calculated to the average rate from the nozzles. If the two don’t match, choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system. 4. Recheck the system if necessary. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete. 128th Acre Method

1. The distance for one nozzle to cover 128th of an acre must be calculated. The nozzle spacing or spray width in inches is used to determine the spray distance. Spray distance is measured in feet. On backpack sprayers, be sure to measure the full width sprayed as you walk forward. Use Equation 9. Equation 9. Spray Distance = 4,084 Spray Width

2. Measure the spray distance on a test course in the field. Check the ground speed as you travel across the course. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed. Travel the course Page 20

4. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required. If the rates are not the same, choose the appropriate adjustment method and reset the sprayer. 5. Recheck the system. Once you have the accuracy you want, calibration is complete. CALIBRATING A GRANULAR APPLICATOR: Preparing to Calibrate

Granular application calibration is usually done with the chemical to be applied. It is difficult to find a blank material that matches the granular product. Extra care should be taken in handling this product. Minimize worker exposure and take precautions against spills during calibration. To prepare for calibration, follow these steps: 1. Before calibrating, carefully inspected the equipment to ensure that all components are in proper working order. Check the hopper, the metering rotor, the orifice, and the drop tubes. Be sure there are no leaks or obstructions.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

2. Determine the type of application required for the product: · • Broadcast: treats the entire area (includes band applications based on broadcast rates). • Band: treats only the area under the band. • Row: treats along the length of the row. 3. Determine the application rate needed: · • Broadcast: pounds per acre. · • Band: pounds per acre of treated band width. · • Row: pounds per acre or pounds per 1,000 feet of row length. 4. What type of drive system does the applicator use? • Independent: uses PTO, hydraulic, or electric motor drive. • Ground Drive: uses ground driven wheel. 5. Regardless of how the application rate is expressed or type of application, calibration is easier if the rate is expressed in terms of pounds per foot of row length. Use one of the following steps to determine the correct row rate in pounds per foot. For broadcast and row applications (Application Rate = lb/ac): Equation 12. Row Rate, lb/ft = Application Rate x Row Width (ft) 43,560

For banded applications (Application Rate = lb/ac of Band Width): Equation 13. Row Rate, lb/ft = Application Rate x Band Width (ft) 43,560

For directed (row) applications (Application Rate = lb per 1,000 ft): Equation 14. Row Rate, lb/ft = Application Rate 1,000

6. Choose a calibration distance to work with and measure a test course of this distance in the field you will be working in. Choose an area that is representative of field conditions. The calibration distance should be at least 50 feet but not more than 500 feet. Longer distances are generally more accurate.

speed. Maintaining an accurate and consistent speed is very important. Choose a safe, controllable speed that will enable you to complete the job in a timely and efficient manner. 9. Set your equipment according to recommendations from the equipment or chemical manufacturer. Most equipment manufacturers and chemical manufacturers provide rate charts to determine the correct orifice setting or rotor speed for each applicator. Fill the hopper at least half full to represent average capacity for calibration. 10. Attach a suitable collection container to each outlet on the applicator. You should be able to collect all material discharged from the applicator. Locate a scale capable of weighing the samples collected in calibration. Some samples may be very small, so a low-capacity scale may be needed. An accurate scale is very important. Calibration Methods

Two methods for calibrating granular applicators are commonly used. The first is the distance method. This method is preferred by many operators because it applies to any type of granular machine and is easy to perform. The second method is the time method. This method is similar to sprayer calibration and can be used for applicators driven by PTO, hydraulic, or electric motors. Distance Method

1. On the test course selected in the field, collect the output from the applicator in a container as you travel the course and weigh the material collected. Record the time required to travel the course also. Run the course twice, once in each direction, and average the results for both weight and time. 2. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance. Equation 16. Weight Collected (lb) = Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft)

3. Compare the weight of the product actually collected to the weight expected for the calibration distance. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent, adjust the orifice, rotor speed, or ground speed and repeat. Bear in mind, speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment. 4. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent.

7. Calculate the weight of material that should be collected for the calibration distance chosen. Equation 15. Weight Collected = Row Rate x Calibration Distance

8. Select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of equipment used. Slow speeds take longer to finish the task, while high speeds may be inefficient and unsafe. Consult your equipment manual for a recommended speed. Even grounddriven application equipment can be sensitive to changes in Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Time Method

1. On the test course selected in the field, record the time required to travel the course. Run the course twice, once in each direction, and average the results. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the time method. 2. With the equipment parked, set the orifice control as recommended and run the applicator for the time measured to run the calibration distance. Collect and weigh the output of the applicator for this time measurement. Page 21

3. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance. Equation 17. Weight Collected (lb) = Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft)

this procedure, collect and measure the total discharge from the spreader as it runs across a test course. The second method, the pan method, is used on centrifugal and pendulum spreaders. The pattern test pans used to determine pattern shape and swath are used to determine the application rate.

4. Compare the weight of the product actually collected during the time it took to cover the calibration distance to the weight expected for the calibration distance. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent, adjust the orifice, rotor speed, or ground speed and repeat. Bear in mind, speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment.

Discharge Method

5. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent.

2. Set the ground speed. Be sure to maintain a constant ground speed at all times.

CALIBRATING A BROADCAST SPREADER:

3. If using a ground drive spreader, attach a collection bin to the discharge chute or under the outlets and collect all the material discharged from the spreader as it runs across the test distance. If using an independent drive spreader, record the time required to run the test course. Park the spreader at a convenient location and measure the discharge from the spreader for the time measured on the test distance. The course should be run twice and the times averaged for better accuracy.

Preparing to Calibrate

Broadcast spreaders include machines designed to apply materials broadcast across the surface of the field. They include drop, spinner, and pendulum spreading devices. Calibration of a broadcast spreader is usually done using the product to be applied. Blank material is available and can be used, but may be hard to find. Use extra care and preparation when calibrating with the chemical. To begin, follow these steps:

1. Determine the test distance to use. Longer distances may give better accuracy but may be difficult to manage. A distance of 300 to 400 feet is usually adequate. Use shorter distances if necessary to avoid collecting more material than you can reasonably handle or weigh.

4. Calculate the application rate (pounds per acre): 1. Carefully inspect all machine components. Repair or replace any elements that are not in good working order. 2. Determine the type of drive system that is being used: ground drive or independent PTO. This may help determine the method of calibration. 3. Determine the application rate and the bulk density of the product to be applied. 4. Determine the spreader pattern and swath of the spreader. Check the pattern to ensure uniformity. To check the pattern, place collection pans across the path of the spreader. For drop spreaders, be sure to place a pan under each outlet. For centrifugal and pendulum spreaders, space the pans uniformly with one in the center and an equal number on each side. The pattern should be the same on each side of the center and should taper smoothly as you go to the outer edge. The swath would be set as the width from side to side where a pan holds 50 percent of the maximum amount collected in the center pan. 5. Fill the hopper half full to simulate average conditions. 6. Set the ground speed of the spreader. 7. Set the spreader according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and begin calibration.

Equation 18. Application Rate, lb/ac = Weight Collected (lb) x 43,560 Distance (ft) x Swath (ft)

5. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required. Adjust and repeat as necessary. Pan Method

1. Place pans in the field across the swath to be spread. Pans should be uniformly spaced to cover the full swath. One pan should be at the center of the swath with equal numbers of pans on each side. Use enough pans, 11 or more, to get a good measurement. 2. Make three passes with the spreader using the driving pattern to be used in the field. One pass should be directly over the center pan and the other passes at the recommended distance, lane spacing, to the left and right of the center pass. 3. Combine the material collected in the pans and determine the weight or volume collected. Divide by the number of pans used to determine the average weight or volume per pan. 4. Calculate the application rate. If you are measuring the weight in the pans in grams: Equation 19. Application Rate, lb/ac = 13,829 x Weight (grams) Pan Area (inches2)

Calibration Methods

There are two common methods used to calibrate broadcast spreaders. The first method is the discharge method. To use Page 22

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

If you are measuring the volume in the pans in cubic centimeters (cc): Equation 20. Application Rate, lb/ac = 13,829 x Bulk Density (lb/ft3) x Volume (cc) Pan Area (inches2) x 62.4

5. Compare the rate measured to the rate required. CALIBRATION VARIABLES Several factors can affect proper calibration. The ground speed of any type of PTO-powered machine can make a difference. On the other hand, ground-driven machines are usually only slightly affected by changes in ground speed. If using dry or granular material, product density will affect the discharge rate and may change the pattern for broadcast spreaders. For liquids, calibration can be affected by pressure, nozzle size, density and viscosity of the liquid, and application type—band or broadcast. The following adjustments may help in adjusting these variables. Speed

For PTO-powered equipment or other equipment in which the discharge rate is independent of ground speed, Equation 10 is useful. Equation 21. New Application Rate = Old Application Rate x (Old Speed/New Speed)

For ground-driven equipment, there should be little or no change in application rate when speed is changed.

tion and those applications in which multiple nozzles per row are used are both treated like broadcast applications. Divide the row spacing by the number of nozzles used per row to get a nozzle spacing for calibration. For band applications in which area of treated land—not cropland covered—is specified, use the width of the band at the ground as the spacing for calibration. Determining Upper and Lower Limits

Upper and lower limits provide a range of acceptable error. To set these limits for a given sample size, use the equations below. First, however, you must decide upon the degree of accuracy you wish to achieve. Select a percent error: 2 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, or any other level of accuracy. Equation 24. Upper Limit = Target Rate x (1 + Percent Error/100%) Equation 25. Lower Limit = Target Rate x (1 – Percent Error/100%)

HOW TO IMPROVE PEST CONTROL Failure to control an insect, mite, disease, or weed pest is often blamed on the pesticide when the cause frequently lies elsewhere. The more common reasons for failure are the following: 1. Delaying applications until pest populations become too large or damaging.

Pressure

2. Poor coverage caused by insufficient volume, inadequate pressure, or clogged or poorly arranged nozzles.

For liquids in sprayers, the discharge rate changes in proportion to the square root of the ratio of the pressures.

3. Selecting the wrong pesticide for the target pests.

Equation 22. New Discharge Rate =

Old Discharge Rate x

New Pressure Old Pressure

Density

For liquids in sprayers, the discharge rate changes if the specific Rate x S.G. of Spray Solution gravitySpray (S.G.)Discharge of the liquid changes. Use water for calibration and adjust as shown below. Calibrate with spray solution only if New Pressure recommended by the supplier. Old Discharge Rate x Old Pressure

Equation 23. Water Discharge Rate =

Spray Discharge Rate x

S.G. of Spray Solution

Band Application Versus Broadcast Application

Some pesticide application recommendations are based on area of cropland covered. Other recommendations are based on area of land treated in the band covered. Check the label for the product you are using to see how it is listed. Broadcast application is based on area of cropland covered. Nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. Band applications in which the area of covered cropland is used for calibraVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

The following steps are suggested for more effective pest control: 1. Scout fields regularly. Know the pest situation and any buildups in your fields. Frequent examina­tions (at least once or twice per week) help determine the proper timing of the next pesticide application. Do not apply a pesticide simply because a neighbor does. 2. Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Use an ongoing program of biological, physical, cultural, and chemical methods in an integrated approach to manage pests. IPM involves scouts visiting fields to collect pest population data. Use this updated information to decide whether insecticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid economic loss from pest damage. Control decisions also are based on many factors, such as: • The economic action threshold level (when the cost of control equals or exceeds potential crop losses attributed to real or potential damage) • Other factors are listed in the Recommended Control Guidelines section following

Page 23

To employ an IPM program successfully, basic practices need to be followed. Whether participating in a univer­sity- or growersupported IPM program, hiring a private consultant, or doing the work personally, the grower still practices: •frequent and regular examination of fields to assess pest populations •applying a control measure only when the economic threshold level has been reached •where possible, employing a cultural practice or a biological control or using a pesticide that is less harmful to natural enemies of the target pest Resistance management. The way pesticides are used affects

the development of resistance. Resis­ tance develops because intensive pesticide use kills the susceptible individuals in a population, leaving only resistant ones to breed. Adopting the following practices will reduce the development of pest resistance: 1. Rotate crops to a nonhost crop, thus reducing the need for pesticide treatment and, thereby reducing the ratio of resistant to susceptible individuals in the breeding population. 2. Use control guidelines as an important tactic for reducing the pesticide resistance problem. For more informa­tion concerning control guidelines, refer to the next section. 3. Spot treat when possible. Early-season insects are often concentrated in areas near their overwintering sites. Diseases often can be first detected in favorable microclimates, such as low or wet areas of the field. Perennial weeds and newly intro­duced or resistant annual weeds often occur first in small numbers in a part of a field. Spot treating these areas, rather than the entire field, will reduce problems with resistance. 4. Control pests early, because seedling weeds and immature insects are more susceptible to pesticides and less likely to develop resistance compared to older and more mature crop pests. 5. Do not overspray. Attempts to destroy every pest in the field by multiple applications or by using higher than labeled rates often eliminate the susceptible pests but not the resistant pests. 6. Rotate pesticides to reduce the development of resistance, particularly with pesticides that differ in their mechanism of action. Rotation among different chemical groups is an excellent method of reducing resistance problems. 7. Use appropriate additives when recommended on the pesticide’s label. For example, adding a crop oil concentrate or a surfactant to certain postemergence herbicides will increase the effectiveness of the herbicides. Control Pests According to Recommended Control Guidelines or Schedule. Control guidelines provide a way to decide whether

pesticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid eco­nomic loss from pest damage. Guidelines for pests are Page 24

generally expressed as a count of a given insect stage or as a crop damage level based on certain sampling techniques. They are intended to reflect the pest population that will cause economic damage and thus would warrant the cost of treatment. Guidelines are usually based on pest populations, field history, stage of crop's development, variety, weather conditions, life stage of the pest, parasite, and/or predator populations, resistance to chemicals, time of year, and other factors. Specific thresholds are given in this handbook for a number of pests of many crops. Insect population sampling techniques include: • Visual observation. Direct counts of any insect stages (eggs, larvae, adults, etc.) are accomplished by exam­ ining plants or plant parts (leaves, stems, flowers, fruits). Counts can be taken on single plants or a pre­scribed length of row, which will vary with the crop. Usually, quick moving insects are counted first, followed by those that are less mobile. • Shake cloth (also known as a ground cloth). This sampling procedure consists of using a standard 3-foot by 3foot shake cloth to assess insect popula­tions. Randomly choose a site without disturbing the plants and carefully unroll the shake cloth between two rows. Bend the plants over the cloth one row at a time and beat the plants vigorously to dislodge insects held on stems, leaves, and branches. Count only insects that have landed on the shake cloth. The number of sampling sites per field will vary with the crop. • Sweep net. This sampling procedure uses a standard 15-inch diameter sweep net to assess insect popula­tions. While walking along one row, swing the net from side to side with a pendulum-like motion to face the direction of movement. The net should be rotated 180 degrees after each sweep and swung through the foliage. Each pass of the net is counted as one sweep. The number of sweeps per field will vary with the crop. Weed population sampling techniques include: • Weed identification. This first step is frequently skipped. Perennial weeds and certain serious annual weeds should be controlled before they can spread. Common annual weeds need only be controlled if they represent a threat to yield, quality, or harvestability. • Growth stage determination. The ability of weeds to compete with the crop is related to size of the weed and size of the crop. Control of the weed using herbicides or mechanical methods is also dependant on weed size. A decision to control or not to control a weed must be carried out before the crop is affected and before the weed is too large to be controlled easily. It is critical to know the weed history of a field prior to planting as many herbicides need to be applied pre-plant. • Weed population. Weeds compete for light, water, nutrients, and space. The extent of this competition is dependant on population and is usually expressed as weeds per foot of row or weeds per square meter. Control measures are needed when the weed population exceeds the maximum tolerable population of that species. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Disease monitoring involves determining the growth stage of the crop, observing disease symptoms on plants, and/or the daily weather conditions in the field. Disease control is often obtained by applying crop protectants on a regular schedule. For many diseases, application must begin at a certain growth stage and repeated every 7 to 10 days. When environmental conditions are favorable for disease development, delaying a spray program will result in a lack of control if the disease has progressed too far. For certain diseases that do not spread rapidly, fields should be scouted regularly. Predictive systems are available for a few diseases. Temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and duration of leaf wetness period are monitored, and the timing of fungicide application is determined by predicting when disease development is most likely to occur. Weather Conditions. These are important to consider before applying a pesticide. Spray only when wind velocity is less than 10 miles per hour. Do not spray when sensitive plants are wilted during the heat of the day. If possible, make applications when ideal weather conditions prevail. Certain pesticides, including the biological insecticides (BT’s) and some herbicides, are ineffective in cool weather. Others do not perform well or may cause crop injury when hot or humid conditions are prevalent. Optimum results can frequently be achieved when the air temperature is in the 70°F range during application. Strive for Adequate Coverage of Plants.

Improved control of aphids can be achieved by adding and arrang­ing nozzles so that the application is directed toward the plants from the sides as well as from the tops (also see Alkaline Water and Pesticides, which follows). In some cases, nozzles should be arranged so that the application is directed beneath the leaves. As the season progresses, plant size increases, as does the need for increased spray gallonage to ensure adequate coverage. Applying insecticide and fungicide sprays with sufficient spray volume and pressure is important. Spray volumes should increase as the crop's surface area increases. Sprays from highvolume-high-pressure rigs (airblast) should be applied at rates of 40 to 200 gallons per acre at 200 psi or greater. Sprays from low-volume-low-­pressure rigs (boom type) should be applied at rates of 50 to 100 gallons per acre at 20 psi. The addition of a spreader-sticker improves coverage and control when wettable powders are applied to smooth-leaved plants, such as cole crops and onions. Use one sprayer for herbicides and a different sprayer for fungicides and insecticides. Herbicide sprays should be applied at between 15 and 50 gallons of spray solution per acre using low pressure (20 to 40 psi). Never apply herbicides with a high-pressure sprayer that was designed for insecticide or fungicide application because excessive drift can result in damage to nontarget plants in adjacent fields and areas. Do not add oil concentrates, surfactants, spreader-stickers, or any other additive unless specified on the label, or crop injury is likely.

Select the Proper Pesticide. Know the pests to be controlled

and choose the recommended pesticide and rate of application. When in doubt, consult your local Extension office. The herbicide choice should be based on weed species or cropping systems. For insects that are extremely difficult to control or are resistant, it is essential to alternate labeled insecticides, especially with different classes of insecticides. Be alert for a possible aphid or mite buildup following the application of certain insecticides such as carbaryl. Caution: Proper application of soil systemic insecticides is extremely important. The insecticide should be placed according to the label instructions (which, in general, indicate application should be directed away from the seed) or crop injury may occur. Be sure to properly identify the disease(s). Many fungicides control specific diseases and provide no control of others. For this reason, on several crops, fungicide combinations are recommended. Pesticide Compatibility. To determine if two pesticides are compatible, use the following “jar test” before you tank-mix pesticides or tank-mix pesticides with liquid fertilizers:

1. Add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution to a clean quart jar, then add the pesticides to the water or fertilizer solution in the same proportion as used in the field. 2. To a second clean quart jar, add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution. Then add 1/2 teaspoon of an adjuvant to keep the mixture emulsified. Finally, add the pesticides to the wateradjuvant or fertilizer a­djuvant in the same proportion as used in the field. 3. Close both jars tightly and mix thoroughly by inverting 10 times. Inspect the mixtures immediately and after standing for 30 minutes. If a uniform mix cannot be made, the mixture should not be used. If the mix in either jar remains uniform for 30 minutes, the combination can be used. If the mixture with adjuvant stays mixed and the mixture without adjuvant does not, use the adjuvant in the spray tank. If either mixture separates but readily remixes, constant agitation is required. If nondispersible oil, sludge, or clumps of solids form, do not use the mixture. Note: For compatibility testing, the pesticide can be added

directly or premixed in water first. In actual tank-mixing for field application, unless label direc­tions specify otherwise, add pesticides to the water in the tank in this order: first, wettable granules or powders, then flowables, emulsifiable concentrates, water solubles, and companion surfactants. If tank-mixed adjuvants are used, these should be added first to the fluid carrier in the tank. Thoroughly mix each product before adding the next product. Select Correct Sprayer Tips. The choice of a sprayer tip for

use with many pesticides is important. Flat fan-spray tips are Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 25

designed for preemergence and postemergence application of herbicides. These nozzles produce a tapered-edge spray pattern that overlaps for uniform coverage when properly mounted on a boom. Standard flat fan-spray tips are designed to operate at low pressures (20-40 psi) to produce small-to medium­-sized droplets that do not have excessive drift. Flat fan-nozzle tips are available in brass, plastic, ceramic, stainless steel, and hardened stainless steel. Brass nozzles are inexpensive and are satisfactory for spraying liquid pesticide formulations. Brass nozzles are least durable, and hardened stainless steel nozzles are most durable and are recommended for wettable powder formulations, which are more abrasive than liquid formulations. When using any wettable powder, it is essential to calibrate the sprayer frequently because, as a nozzle wears, the volume of spray material delivered through the nozzle increases. Flood-type nozzle tips are generally used for complete fertilizers, liquid N, etc., and sometimes for spraying herbicides onto the soil surface prior to incorporation. They are less suitable for spraying postemergence herbicides or for applying fungicides or insecticides to plant foliage. Coverage of the target is often less uniform and complete when flood-type nozzles are used, compared with the coverage obtained with other types of nozzles. Results with postemergence herbicides applied with flood-type nozzles may be satisfactory if certain steps are taken to improve target coverage. Space flood-type nozzles a maximum of 20 inches apart, rather than the suggested 40-inch spacing. This will result in an overlapping spray pattern. Spray at the maximum pressure recom­mended for the nozzle. These techniques will improve target coverage with flood-type nozzles and result in more satisfactory weed control. Full and hollow-cone nozzles deliver circular spray patterns and are used for application of insecticides and fungicides to crops where thorough coverage of the leaf surfaces is extremely important and where spray drift will not cause a problem. They are used when higher water volumes and spray pressures are recommended. With cone nozzles, the disk size and the number of holes in the whirl plate affect the output rate. Various combinations of disks and whirl plates can be used to achieve the desired spray coverage. Alkaline Water and Pesticides. At times applicators have

com­mented that a particular pesticide has given unsatisfac­tory results. Usually, these results can be attributed to poor application, a bad batch of chemical, pest resis­tance, weather con­ ditions, etc. However, another possible reason for unsatisfactory results from a pesticide may be the pH of the mixing water. Some materials carry a label cautioning the user against mixing the pesticide with alkaline materials. The reason for this caution is that some materials (in par­ticular the organophosphate insecticides) undergo a chemical reaction know as “alkaline hydrolysis.” This reaction occurs when the pesticide is mixed with alkaline water; that is, water with a pH greater than 7. The more alkaline the water, the greater the breakdown (i.e., "hydrolysis"). In addition to lime sulfur, several other materials provide alkaline conditions: caustic soda, caustic potash, soda ash, magnesia or dolomitic limestone, and liquid ammonia. Water Page 26

sources in agricultural areas can vary in pH from less than 3 to greater than 10. To check the pH of your water, purchase a pH meter or in most states you can submit a water sample to your state’s soil or water testing lab. If you have a problem with alkaline pH, there are several products available that are called nutrient buffers that will lower the pH of your water. There are some instances when materials should not be acidified, namely, sprays containing fixed copper fungicides, including: Bordeaux mixture, copper oxide, basic copper sulfate, copper hydroxide, etc. BENEFICIAL INSECTS A number of environmental factors, such as weather, food availability, and natural enemies combine to keep insect populations under control naturally. In some human-altered landscapes, such as in agricultural crop fields, the levels of natural control are often not acceptable to us, and we have to intervene in order to lower pest populations. While some environmental factors, such as weather, cannot be altered to enhance control of pests, others such as populations of natural enemies, can be effected. The practice of taking advantage of and manipulating natural enemies in order to suppress pest populations is called biological control. Approaches To Biological Control. There are three general

approaches to biological control: importation, augmentation, and conservation of natural enemies. Each of these techniques can be used either alone or in combination in a biological control program. Importation: Importation of natural enemies, sometimes referred to as classical biological control, is used when a pest of exotic origin is the target of the biocontrol program. Pests are constantly being imported into countries where they are not native, either accidentally, or in some cases, intentionally. Many of these introductions do not result in establishment or if they do, the organism may not become a pest. However, it is possible for some of these introduced organisms to become pests due to a lack of natural enemies to suppress their populations. In these cases, importation of natural enemies can be highly effective. Once the country of origin of the pest is determined, exploration in the native region can be conducted to search for promising natural enemies. If such enemies are identified, they may be evaluated for potential impact on the pest organism in the native country or alternatively imported into the new country for further study. Natural enemies are imported into the U.S. only under permit from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. They must first be placed in quarantine for one or more generations to be sure that no undesirable species are accidentally imported (diseases, hyperparasitoids, etc.). Additional permits are required for interstate shipment and field release. Augmentation: Augmentation is the direct manipulation of natural enemies to increase their effectiveness. This can be accomplished by one of two general methods or a combination of these methods: mass production and/or periodic colonization of Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

natural enemies. The most commonly used of these approaches is the first, in which natural enemies are produced in insectaries, then released either inoculatively or inundatively. For example, in areas where a particular natural enemy cannot overwinter, an inoculative release each spring may allow the population to establish and adequately control a pest. Inundative releases involve the release of large numbers of a natural enemy such that their population completely overwhelms the pest. Augmentation is used where populations of a natural enemy are not present or cannot respond quickly enough to the pest population. Therefore, augmentation usually does not provide permanent suppression of pests, as may occur with importation or conservation methods. An example of the inoculative release method is the use of the parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa Gahan, to suppress populations of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). The greenhouse whitefly is a ubiquitous pest of vegetable and floriculture crops that is notoriously difficult to manage, even with pesticides. Releases of relatively low densities (typically 0.25 to 2 per plant, depending on the crop) of Encarsia immediately after the first whiteflies have been detected on yellow sticky cards can effectively prevent populations from developing to damaging levels. However, releases should be made within the context of an integrated crop management program that takes into account the low tolerance of the parasitoids to pesticides. It is important to bear in mind that Encarsia can provide effective control of greenhouse whitefly, but not sweetpotato whitefly. Therefore, it is critical to identify which whitefly is present before releasing Encarsia. Another parasitoid, Eretmocerus californicus has shown promise against sweetpotato whitefly. Because most augmentation involves mass-production and periodic colonization of natural enemies, this type of biological control has lent itself to commercial development. There are hundreds of biological control products available commercially for dozens of pest invertebrates (insects, spidermites, etc.), vertebrates (deer, rodents, etc.), weeds, and plant pathogens. A summary of these products and their target pests is presented in Table 13. The efficacy of these predators and parasites is dependent on many factors. Management of the target pest is more likely than 100% control. It is critical to familiarize yourself with proper usage of these predators and parasites otherwise you may not achieve satisfactory results and obtain inconsistent results. Selection of products and suppliers should be done with care, as with purchasing any product. Review publications for guidelines on how to purchase and utilize natural enemies. Conservation: The most common form of biological control is

conservation of natural enemies which already exist in a cropping situation. Conservation involves identifying the factor(s) which may limit the effectiveness of a particular natural enemy and modifying these factor(s) to increase the effectiveness of natural enemies. In general, this involves either reducing factors which interfere with natural enemies or providing resources that natural enemies need in their environment. The most common factor that interferes with natural enemy effectiveness is the application of pesticides. Some cultural practices such as tillage or burning of crop debris can also kill natural enemies or make the crop habitat unsuitable. In some crops, accumulation of dust Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

deposits on leaves from repeated tillage or a location near roadways may kill small predators and parasites and cause increases in certain insect and mite pests. In some cases, the chemical and physical defenses that plants use to protect themselves from pests may reduce the effectiveness of biological control. An example of how conservation can work involves the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). This insect has developed into the most important pest of crucifers in recent years due to the pest's development of resistance to most pesticides. Two parasitoids, the Ichneumonid wasp Diadegma insulare (Cresson) and the braconid wasp Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjunov), can help reduce diamondback moth populations if excessive pesticide applications are avoided, especially with reductions in the use of pyrethroids. BT products can work well to suit this purpose. Therefore, by simply being selective in the type of pesticide used, and by spraying only when threshold levels are reached, free control can be provided by natural enemies already present in the field. Incorporating Biological Control Into A Pest Management Program: Biological control can be an effective, environmen-

tally sound method of managing pests. However, when trying to make the best use of natural enemies in your crop, it may be helpful to consider the following suggestions. First, make sure you have your pest(s) accurately identified. Extension can help with this. Consulting Extension is a good practice regardless of which pest control method you use. Second, determine if natural enemy releases are appropriate for your specific situation. Sometimes knowledge of crop and cultural practices that encourage naturally-occurring biological control agents can allow you to maximize the control they provide. By conserving these natural enemies, pesticide use (and therefore expense) can be minimized. Usually, released natural enemies work best as a preventative pest management method. That is, if they are introduced into your crop at the beginning of a pest infestation, they can prevent that population from developing to damaging levels. If you wait until pests have become a problem before releasing natural enemies, the use of natural enemies usually will not work. Therefore, pest problems must be anticipated and planned for by carefully monitoring pest population development. Effective trapping, monitoring, and field scouting should be used to determine when pests appear, and to determine the timing of natural enemy releases. If you decide to use commercially available biological control agents, you should choose your product and supplier carefully. Once you have received your natural enemies, handle them with care, following all instructions provided by your supplier. The number or rate of natural enemies to release can be determined through consultation with a reliable supplier, as can the timing of application. Because natural enemies are living organisms, adverse conditions (e.g. stormy weather, pesticide residues) can kill them or reduce their effectiveness. Because the actions of natural enemies are not as obvious as those of pesticides, it may be important to work with your supplier to develop a procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of your releases. Further details of the above suggestions are provided in Table 13. Remember, just because an organism is sold as a “natural” Page 27

or “biological” control does not mean it will work as you expect. For example, praying mantids are general “ambush” predators that will eat anything small enough (usually mobile insects) that pass in front of them. They do not specifically attack pests that growers are usually interested in removing. Another example is ladybeetle adults that have been “pre-conditioned.” These ladybeetles will just as readily leave the area that you have treated as ladybeetles that have been collected and not pre-conditioned.

This does not mean that biological control will not work for your situation. There are a number of products and approaches that can provide very satisfactory results. For the most current information about suppliers of organisms and related products, the purchase of natural enemies, and how to effectively use them, consult with Extension:

Table 13. PREDATORS AND PARASITES OF VEGETABLE PESTS PREDATORS AND PARASITES Aphelinid wasps Braconid wasps

PEST CONTROLLED • aphids on some greenhouse crops • caterpillars on cole crops and Irish potatoes

Eulophid wasps

• •

leafminers in some greenhouse crops Colorado Potato Beetle, Mexican Bean beetle, Asparagus beetle

Encarsia wasps Encyrtid wasps Flower bug

• • • •

leafminers in some field crops whiteflies on greenhouse and on some field crops aphids on some greenhouse crops thrips, spider mites, aphids, small caterpillars

Ichneumonid wasps Lacewings Lady beetles

• • • •

Mymarid egg wasps Parasitic flies Predatory mites

• • •

small insects in sweet corn, Irish potato, and on some greenhouse crops caterpillars and beetle larvae on cole crops and asparagus aphids and thrips on some field crops aphids, mites, small insects, and insect eggs in most vegetable crops (especially Irish potatoes, tomatoes, sweet corn, and cole crops) Lygus bug eggs caterpillars on sweet corn fungus gnats on greenhouse crops

mites greenhouse and some field crops

Predatory midge Scelionid egg wasps Spined Soldier bug

• • • •

Trichogramma wasps Stink Bugs

• •

Spine Soldier bug, Flower bug Lady Beetle, Lacewings, and Predator Stink bugs

• •

thrips on greenhouse crops and on some field crops aphids on some greenhouse crops Stink Bug eggs generalist predator on many vegetables (including Irish potato, tomato, sweet corn, cole crops, beans, eggplant, cucurbits, asparagus, onions) of several insect species including larvae of European Corn borer, Diamondback moth, Corn Earworm, Beet Armyworm, Fall Armyworm, Colorado Potato beetle, Cabbage Looper, Imported Cabbageworm, and Mexican Bean beetle moth eggs on cole crops, peppers, sweet corn, and tomatoes various insect species that attack Irish potato, tomato, sweet corn, cole crops, beans, eggplant, cucurbits, asparagus, and onions generalist predator of many insect species small caterpillars, Corn earworm, European Corn borer, Potato Leafhopper in sweet corn and Irish potatoes on greenhouse crops

Predatory mites Stink Bug Parasitoid wasps Ichneumonid wasps

Encyrtidae Encyritidae Eulophidae Mymaridae Pteromalidae caterpillars Tiphidae Parasitic nematodes

Page 28

thrips, mites, whiteflies, leafhopper, Diamondback moth, Cabbage Looper, Corn Earworm, Colorado Potato beetles, Asparagus beetle, leafminers, pest mites, midges in cole crops

• • • •

beetle moth larvae and other small insects in several vegetable crops pest mites and thrips on some greenhouse crops and on some field crops generalist predator of many insect species beetle larvae on cole crops and sweet corn

moth eggs in sweet corn

• • • • • • • •

whiteflies on cole crops and tomato Cabbage Looper Root maggot Colorado Potato beetle, Mexican Bean beetle, Asparagus beetle, leafminer Carrot weevil Cabbage worm and Diamondback moth Japanese beetles cutworms, beetle larvae, root maggots

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

DIAGNOSING VEGETABLE CROP PROBLEMS When visiting a vegetable field, follow the steps outlined below to help solve any potential problems. All vegetable problems, such as poor growth, leaf blemishes, wilts, rots, and other problems should be promptly diagnosed. This is necessary for the grower to implement prompt and effective corrective measures or to help reduce the probability of its reoccurrence in following crops or its spread to susceptible neighboring crops. 1. Describe the problem. 2. Determine whether there is a pattern of symptomatic plants in the field. a. Does the pattern correlate with a certain area in the field, such as a low spot, poor-drainage area, or sheltered area? b. Does the pattern correlate with concurrent field operations, such as certain rows, time of planting, method of fertilization, or rate of fertilization? 3. Try to trace the history of the problem. a. On what date were the symptoms first noticed? b. Which fertilizer and liming practices were used? c. Which pest-management practices were used to manage diseases, undesirable insects, and weeds — which chemicals (if any), were applied, at what application rates, and what was the previous use of equipment that was used for application? d. What were the temperatures, soil moisture conditions, and level of sunlight? e. What was the source of seed or planting stock? f. Which crops were grown in the same area during the past 3 or 4 years? 4. Examine affected plants to determine whether the problem is related to insects, diseases, or cultural practices. a. Do the symptoms point to insect problems? Insect problems are usually restricted to the crop. (A hand lens is usually essential to determine this.) (1) Look for the presence of insects, webbing, and frass on foliage, stems, and roots. (2) Look for feeding signs such as chewing, sucking, or boring injuries. b. Do the symptoms suggest disease problems? These symptoms are usually not uniform; rather, they are specific for certain crops. (1) Look for necrotic (dead) areas on the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit. (2) Look for discoloration of the vascular tissue (plant veins). (3) Look for fungal growth. (4) Look for virus patterns; often these are similar to injury from 2,4-D or other hormones and nutritional problems. (5) Examine roots for twisting or galling.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

c. Do the symptoms point to cultural problems? Look for the following: (1) Nutrient deficiencies. (A soil test from good areas and poor areas should be done as well as analysis of nutrient content of leaf tissue from the same areas.) •Nitrogen—light green or yellow foliage. Nitrogen deficiencies are more acute on lower leaves. •Phosphorus—purple coloration of leaves; plants are stunted. •Potassium— yellow or brown leaf margins and leaf curling. •Magnesium—interveinal chlorosis (yellowing between veins) of mid level or lower leaves. •Boron—development of lateral growth; hollow, brownish stems; cracked petioles. •Iron—light green or yellow foliage occurs first and is more acute on young leaves. •Molybdenum—”whiptail” leaf symptoms on cauliflower and other crops in the cabbage family. (2) Chemical toxicities. •Toxicity of minor elements—boron, zinc, manganese. •Soluble salt injury—wilting of the plant when wet; death, usually from excessive fertilizer application or accumulation of salts from irrigation water. (3) Soil problems. (Take soil tests of good and poor areas.) •Poor drainage. •Poor soil structure, compaction, etc. •Hard pans or plow pans. (4) Pesticide injury. (Usually uniform in the area or shows definite patterns, and more than one plant species, such as weeds, are often symptomatic.) •Insecticide burning or stunting. •Weed-killer (herbicide) burning or abnormal growth. (5)Climatic damage. •High-temperature injury. •Low-temperature (chilling) injury. •Lack of water. •Excessive moisture (lack of soil oxygen). •Frost or freeze damage. (6) Physiological damage. •Air-pollution injury. •Genetic mutations. In summary, when trying to solve a vegetable crop problem, take notes of problem areas, look for a pattern to the symptoms, trace the history of the problem, and examine the plants and soil closely. These notes can be used to avoid the problem in the future or to assist others in helping solve their problem. Publi­ca­ tions and bulletins designed to help the grower identi­fy specific vegeta­ble problems are avail­able from Extension. Page 29

AIR POLLUTION INJURY The extent of plant damage by particular pollutants in any given year depends on meteorological factors leading to air stagnation, the presence of a pollution source, and the susceptibility of the plants. Some pollutants that affect vegetable crops are sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), chlorine (Cl), and ammonia (NH3). Sulfur dioxide. SO2 causes acute and chronic plant injury. Acute injury is characterized by clearly marked dead tissue between the veins or on leaf margins. The dead tissue may be bleached, ivory, tan, orange, red, reddish brown, or brown, depending on plant species, time of year, and weather conditions. Chronic injury is marked by brownish red, turgid, or bleached white areas on the leaf blade. Young leaves rarely display damage, whereas fully expanded leaves are very sensitive. Some crops sensitive to sulfur dioxide are: squash, pumpkin, mustard, spinach, lettuce, endive, Swiss chard, broccoli, bean, carrot, and tomato. Ozone. A common symptom of O3 injury is small stipple­like

or flecklike lesions visible only on the upper leaf sur­face. These very small, irregularly shaped spots may be dark brown to black (stipplelike) or light tan to white (flecklike). Very young leaves are normally resistant to ozone. Recently matured leaves are most susceptible. Leaves be­come more susceptible as they mature, and the lesions spread over a greater portion of the leaf with successive ozone exposures. Injury is usually more pronounced at the leaf tip and along the margins. With severe damage, symptoms may extend to the lower leaf surface. Pest feeding (red spider mite and certain leafhoppers) produces flecks on the upper surface of leaves much like ozone injury. Flecks from insect feeding, however, are usually spread uniformly over the leaf, whereas ozone flecks are concen­trated in specific areas. Some older watermelon varieties and red varieties of Irish potatoes and beans are particu­larly sensitive to ozone. Peroxyacetyl nitrate. PAN affects the under surfaces of newly matured leaves, and it causes bronzing, glazing, or silvering on the lower surface of sensitive leaf areas. The leaf apex of broadleaved plants becomes sensitive to PAN about 5 days after leaf emergence. Since PAN toxicity is specific for tissue of a particular stage of development, only about four leaves on a shoot are sensitive at any one time. With PAN only successive exposures will cause the entire leaf to develop injury. Injury may consist of bronzing or glazing with little or no tissue collapse on the upper leaf surface. Pale green to white stipplelike areas may appear on upper and lower leaf surfaces. Complete tissue collapse in a diffuse band across the leaf is helpful in identifying PAN injury. Glazing of lower leaf surfaces may be produced by the feeding of thrips or other insects or by insecticides and herbicides, but differences should be detectable by careful examination. Sensitive crops are: Swiss chard, lettuce, beet, esca­role, mustard, dill, pepper, Irish potato, spinach, tomato, and canta­loupe.

Page 30

Chlorine. Injury from chlorine is usually of an acute type, and it

is similar in pattern to sulfur dioxide injury. Foliar necrosis and bleaching are common. Necrosis is marginal in some species, but scattered in others either between or along veins. Lettuce plants exhibit necrotic injury on the margins of outer leaves, which often extends into solid areas toward the center and base of the leaf. Inner leaves remain un­marked. Crops sensitive to chlorine are: Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard, beet, esca­ role, mustard, dill, pepper, Irish potato, spinach, tomato, canta­ loupe, corn, onion, and radish. Ammonia. Field injury from NH3 has been primari­ly due to

accidental spillage or use of ammoniated fertilizers under plastic mulch on light sandy soils. Slight amounts of the gas produce color changes in the pigments of vegetable skin. The dry outer scales of red onions may become greenish or black, whereas scales of yellow or brown onions may turn dark brown. WHAT ARE GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAPs)? Good agricultural practices (GAPs) are the basic environmental and operational conditions necessary for the production of safe, wholesome fruits and vegetables. The purpose of GAPs is to give logical guidance in implementing best management practices that will help to reduce the risks of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables. Examples of GAPs include worker hygiene and health, manure use, and water quality throughout the production and harvesting process. While the United States has one of the safest food supplies in the world, recent media attention the past few years on food borne illness outbreaks underscores the importance of good agricultural practices. Growers, packers, and shippers are urged to take a proactive role in minimizing food safety hazards potentially associated with fresh produce. Being aware of, and addressing, the common risk factors outlined in GAPs will result in a more effective, cohesive response to emerging concerns about the microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, operators should encourage the adoption of safe practices by their partners along the farm-to-table food chain. This includes distributors, exporters, importers, retailers, producer transporters, food service operators, and consumers. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GOOD AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES (GAPs) By identifying basic principles of microbial food safety within the realm of growing, harvesting, packing, and transporting fresh produce, growers will be better prepared to recognize and address the principal elements known to give rise to microbial food safety concerns. 1. Prevention of microbial contamination of fresh produce is favored over reliance on corrective actions once contamination has occurred.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

2. To minimize microbial food safety hazards in fresh produce, growers, packers, and shippers should use good agricultural and management practices in those areas over which they have control. 3. Fresh produce can become microbiologically contaminated at any point along the farm-to-table food chain. The major source of microbial contamination with fresh produce is associated with human or animal feces. 4. Whenever water comes in contact with produce, its source and quality dictates the potential for contamination. Minimize the potential of microbial contamination from water used with fresh fruits and vegetables. 5. Practices using animal manure or municipal biosolid wastes should be managed closely to minimize the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce. 6. Worker hygiene and sanitation practices during production, harvesting, sorting, packing, and transport play a critical role in minimizing the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce. 7. Follow all applicable local, state, and federal laws and regulations, or corresponding or similar laws, regulations or standards for operators outside the U.S., for agricultural practices. 8. Accountability at all levels of the agricultural environment (farm, packing facility, distribution center, and transport operation) is important to a successful food safety program. 9. There must be qualified personnel and effective monitoring to ensure that all elements of the program function correctly and to help track produce back through the distribution channels to the producer. More information and resources on Good Agricultural Practices can be found at: http://www.ncfreshproducesafety.org or by contacting your local Extension office. POSTHARVEST HANDLING Importance of Temperature Management

Once harvested, a vegetable continues life processes independent of the plant, and as a result, must utilize its own stored energy reserves. Within hours of harvest, crops held at ambient temperatures can suffer irreversible losses in quality, reducing postharvest life. Additionally, many vegetables, such as greens and lettuce, are cut at harvest, and this wound further increases stress on the tissue. The relative perishability of a crop is reflected in its respiration rate. Respiration is the process of life by which O2 is combined with stored carbohydrates and other components to produce heat, chemical energy, water, CO2, and other products. The respiration rate varies by commodity; those commodities with high respiration rates utilize the reserves faster and are more perishable than those with lower respiraVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

tion rates. Therefore, vegetables with higher respiration rates, such as broccoli and sweet corn, must be rapidly cooled to the optimal storage temperature to slow metabolism and extend postharvest life during subsequent shipping and handling operations. Since the introduction of hydrocooling for celery in the 1920s, rapid cooling (precooling) has allowed produce to be shipped to distant markets while maintaining high quality. Commercial cooling is defined as the rapid removal of field heat to temperatures approaching optimal storage temperature and it is the first line of defense in retarding the biological processes that reduce vegetable quality. Cooling, in conjunction with refrigeration during subsequent handling operations, provides a “cold chain” from packinghouse to supermarket to maximize postharvest life and control diseases and pests. (The term “postharvest life” is purposely used in this text, since “shelf life” has the connotation that the commodity “sits on the shelf”, implying that the product requires no subsequent refrigeration.) Timeliness during handling is also essential in maintaining produce quality: timely and careful harvest and transport to the packinghouse, rapid packing and cooling, and rapid transport to the market or buyer. Everyone involved at each of the many steps during product handling (e.g., shippers, truckers, receivers) must take care to ensure that the refrigerated cold chain is not broken. Many shippers are well equipped to rapidly cool their crops, and a growing number are incorporating cooling or improving their existing facilities. Simple placement of packed vegetables in a refrigerated cooler is not sufficient to maintain quality for product destined for distant markets. Neither should non-cooled vegetables be loaded directly into refrigerated trailers. In both of these situations, the product cools very slowly, at best. Refrigerated trailers are designed to maintain product temperature during transport, and they do not have the refrigeration capacity to quickly remove field heat. Therefore, only produce that has been properly cooled should be loaded, and only into trailers that have been cooled prior to loading. Storage Requirements

Horticultural crops may be grouped and stored into two broad categories based on sensitivity to storage temperatures. The degree of chilling sensitivity, and therefore the lowest safe storage temperature, is crop-specific. Those crops that are chilling sensitive should be held at temperatures generally above 50°F (10°C). Storage below this threshold will give rise to a physiological disorder known as chilling injury. Chilling injury symptoms are characterized by development of sunken lesions on the skin, increased susceptibility to decay, increased shriveling, and incomplete ripening (poor flavor, texture, aroma, and color). Vegetables most susecptible to chilling injury include cucumber, eggplant, melons, okra, peppers, Irish potatos, summer squash, and tomatoes.The extent of chilling symptoms is also dependent on the length of exposure to low temperatures. Short exposure times will result in less injury than longer exposure to chilling temperatures. Those crops not as sensitive to chilling injury may be stored at temperatures as low as 32°F (0°C). In addition to maintaining storage rooms at proper storage temperatures, the relative humidity should also be controlled to reduce water loss from the crop. Optimal storage recommendaPage 31

tions and precooling methods are included for a wide range of vegetable commodities in Table 14. OPTIMIZING COMMERCIAL COOLING Cooling Concepts

Cooling is a term that is often used quite loosely. In order to be effective and significantly benefit the shipping life of the product, an appropriate definition of commercial cooling for perishable crops is: the rapid removal of at least 7/8 of the field

heat from the crop by a compatible cooling method. The time required to remove 7/8 of the field heat is known as the 7/8 Cooling Time. Removal of 7/8 of the field heat during cooling is strongly recommended to provide adequate shipping life for shipment to distant markets; also, 7/8 of the heat can be removed in a fairly short amount of time. Removal of the remaining 1/8 of the field heat will occur during subsequent refrigerated storage and handling with little detriment to the product. The rate of heat transfer, or the cooling rate, is critical for efficient removal of field heat in order to achieve cooling. As a form

Table 14. R ECOMMENDED STORAGE CONDITIONS AND COOLING METHODS FOR MAXIMUM POSTHARVEST LIFE OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN VEGETABLES Commodity Temperature % Relative Approximate Cooling °F °C Humidity Storage Life Method1 Asparagus 32-35 0-2 95-100 2-3 weeks HY Bean, green or snap 40-45 4-7 95 7-10 days HY, FA Bean, lima (butterbean) 37-41 3-5 95 5-7 days HY Bean, lima, shelled 32 0 95-100 2-3 days ROOM, FA Beet, topped 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Broccoli 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY,ICE Cabbage, early 32 0 98-100 3-6 weeks ROOM Cabbage, Chinese 32 0 95-100 2-3 months HY,VAC Carrot, bunched 32 0 95-100 2 weeks HY Carrot, mature, topped 32 0 98-100 7-9 months HY Cauliflower 32 0 95-98 3-4 weeks HY,VA Collard 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY,ICE,VAC Cucumber 50-55 10-13 95 10-14 days HY Eggplant 46-54 8-12 90-95 1 week FA Endive and escarole 32 0 95-100 2-3 weeks HY,ICE,VAC Garlic 32 0 65-70 6-7 months ROOM Greens, leafy 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY,ICE,VAC Kale 32 0 95-100 2-3 weeks HY,ICE,VAC Kohlrabi 32 0 98-100 2-3 months ROOM Leek 32 0 95-100 2-3 months HY,ICE,VAC Lettuce 32 0 98-100 2-3 weeks VAC Melon Cantaloupe, 3/4-slip 36-41 2-5 95 15 days FA,HY Mixed melons 45-50 6-10 90-95 2-3 weeks FA,HY Watermelon 50-60 10-15 90 2-3 weeks ROOM, FA Okra 45-50 7-10 90-95 7-10 days FA Onion, green 32 0 95-100 3-4 weeks HY,ICE Onion, dry2 32 0 65-70 1-8 months ROOM Parsley 32 0 95-100 2-2.5 months HY,ICE Parsnip 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Pea, green or English 32 0 95-98 1-2 weeks HY,ICE Southernpea 40-41 4-5 95 6-8 days FA,HY Pepper, sweet (bell) 45-55 7-13 90-95 2-3 weeks FA, ROOM Potato, Irish2 40 4 90-95 4-5 months HY,ROOM,FA Pumpkin 50-55 10-13 50-70 2-3 months ROOM Radish, spring 32 0 95-100 3-4 weeks HY, FA Radish, oriental 32 0 95-100 2-4 months ROOM Rutabaga 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Spinach 32 0 95-100 10-14 days ICE,HY,VAC Squash, summer 41-50 5-10 95 1-2 weeks FA,HY Sweet corn 32 0 95-98 5-8 days HY,ICE,VAC Squash, winter 50 10 50-70 Depending on type ROOM Sweetpotato2 55-60 13-16 85-90 4-7 months ROOM Tomato, mature-green 55-70 13-21 90-95 1-3 weeks FA,ROOM Tomato, firm-red 46-50 8-10 90-95 4-7 days FA,ROOM Turnip 32 0 95 4-5 months FA,ROOM 1 FA = Forced-air cooling; HY = Hydrocooling; ICE = Package ice, slush ice; ROOM = Room cooling; VAC = Vacuum cooling 2 Curing required prior to long term storage. ‘Curing’ of dry onions actually involves drying the outer bulb scales, reducing the fresh weight by 5-6%.

Page 32

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

of energy, heat always seeks equilibrium. In the case of cooling, the sensible heat (or field heat) from the product is transferred to the cooling medium. The efficiency of cooling is dependent on time, temperature, and contact. In order to achieve maximum cooling, the product must remain in the precooler for sufficient time to remove heat. The cooling medium (air, water, crushed ice) must be maintained at constant temperature throughout the cooling period. The cooling medium also must have continuous, intimate contact with the surfaces of the individual vegetables. For reasonable cooling efficiency, the cooling medium temperature should be at least at the recommended storage temperature for the commodity found in Table 14. Inappropriately designed containers with insufficient vent or drain openings or incorrectly stacked pallets can markedly restrict the flow of the cooling medium, increasing cooling time. COOLING METHODS The cooling rate is not only dependent upon time, temperature, and contact with the commodity; it is also dependent upon the cooling method being employed. The various cooling media used to cool produce have different capacities to remove heat. Room Cooling

The simplest, but slowest, cooling method is room cooling, in which the bulk or containerized commodity is placed in a refrigerated room for several days. Air is circulated by the existing fans past the evaporator coil to the room. Vented containers and proper stacking are critical to minimize obstructions to air flow and ensure maximum heat removal. Room cooling is not considered precooling and is satisfactory only for commodities with low respiration rates, such as mature potatoes, dried onions, and cured sweetpotatoes. Even these crops may require precooling, when harvested under high ambient temperatures. Forced-Air Cooling

The cooling efficiency of refrigerated rooms can be greatly improved by increasing the airflow through the product. This principle led to the development of forced-air, or pressure cooling, in which refrigerated room air is drawn at a high flow rate through specially stacked containers or bins by means of a high capacity fan. This method can cool as much as four times faster than room cooling. A Force-Air cooling is an efficient method for precooling. In many cases, cold storage rooms can be retrofitted for forced-air cooling, which requires less capital investment than other cooling methods. However, in order to achieve such rapid heat removal, the refrigeration capacity of the room may need to be increased to be able to maintain the desired air temperature during cooling. Portable systems can be taken to the field. With either room cooling or forced-air cooling, precautions must be taken to minimize water loss from the product. The refrigeration system actually dehumidifies the cold-room air as water vapor in the air condenses on the evaporator coil. This condensation lowers the relative humidity in the room. As a result, the product loses moisture to the air. To minimize water loss during cooling and storage, the ambient relative humidity should be maintained at the recommended level for the particular crop (commercial humidification systems are available) and Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

the product should be promptly removed from the forced-air precooler upon achieving 7/8 Cooling. Forced-air cooling is recommended for most of the fruit-type vegetables and is especially appropriate for vegetables such as peppers and tomatoes. Hydrocooling

Hydrocooling removes heat at a faster rate than forced-air cooling. The heat capacity of refrigerated water is greater than that for air, which means that a given volume of water can remove more heat than the same volume of air at the same temperature. Hydrocooling is beneficial in that it does not remove water from the commodity. It is most efficient (and, therefore, most rapid) when individual vegetables are cooled by immersion in flumes or by overhead drench, since the water completely covers the product surfaces. Cooling becomes less efficient when the commodity is hydrocooled in closed containers, and even less efficient when containers are palletized and hydrocooled. It is important to continuously monitor the hydrocooler water and product temperatures and adjust the amount of time the product is in the hydrocooler accordingly in order to achieve thorough cooling. Sanitation of the hydrocooling water is critical, since it is recirculated. Decay organisms present on the vegetables can accumulate in the water, inoculating subsequent product being hydrocooled. Cooling water should be changed frequently. Commodities that are hydrocooled must be sufficiently resistant to withstand the force of the water drench. The container must also have sufficient strength so as to resist the application of water. Crops recommended for hydrocooling include sweet corn, snap beans, cucumbers, and summer squash. Contact Icing

Contact icing has been used for both cooling and temperature maintenance during shipping. Heat from the product is absorbed by the ice, causing it to melt. As long as the contact between the ice and produce is maintained, cooling is fairly rapid and the melted ice serves to maintain a very high humidity level in the package, which keeps the produce fresh and crisp. Non-uniform distribution of ice reduces the cooling efficiency. There are two types of contact icing: top icing and package icing. Top icing involves placement of crushed ice over the top layer of product in a container prior to closure. Although relatively inexpensive, the cooling rate can be fairly slow since the ice only directly contacts the product on the top layer. For this reason, it is recommended that top icing be applied after precooling to crops with lower respiration rates such as leafy vegetables and celery but not for fruit of warm-season crops. Prior to shipping, ice is blown on top of containers loaded in truck trailers to aid in cooling and maintenance of higher relative humidity. However, care should be taken to avoid blockage of vent spaces in the load; this restricts airflow, which results in warming of product in the center of the load during shipment. Ice should also be “tempered” with water to bring the temperature to 32°F (0°C) to avoid freezing of the product. Package Icing. Crushed ice distributed within the container is known as package icing. Cooling is faster and more uniform than for top icing, but it can be more labor intensive to apply. A modified version of package icing utilizes a slurry of refrigerated water and finely chopped ice drenched over either Page 33

bulk or containerized produce or injected into side hand holds. This “slush ice” method has been widely adopted for commodities tolerant to direct contact with water and requiring storage at 32°F (0°C). The water acts as a carrier for the ice so that the resulting slush, or slurry, can be pumped into a packed container. The rapidly flowing slush causes the product in the container to float momentarily until the water drains out the bottom. As the product settles in the container, the ice encases the individual vegetables by filling air voids, thus providing good contact for heat removal. Slush icing is somewhat slower than forced-air cooling, but it does reduce pulp temperatures to 32°F (0°C) within a reasonable amount of time and maintains an environment of high relative humidity. Container selection is critical. The container must be oversized to accommodate sufficient ice to provide cooling. Corrugated fiberboard cartons must be resistant to contact with water (usually impregnated with paraffin wax) and must be of sufficient strength so as not to deform. Shipping operations must also tolerate water dripping from the melting ice during handling and storage. Package icing is successfully used for leafy crops, sweet corn, green onions, and cantaloupes. Vacuum Cooling

Vacuum cooling is a very rapid method of cooling, and is most efficient for commodities with a high surface-to-volume ratio such as leafy crops. This method is based on the principle that,

Page 34

as the atmospheric pressure is reduced, the boiling point of water decreases. Containerized or bulk product is thoroughly wetted, placed in a vacuum chamber (tube) and sealed. The pressure in the chamber is reduced until the water on the product surface evaporates at the desired precooling temperature. As water on the product surface evaporates, it removes field heat; the resultant vapor is condensed on evaporator coils within the vacuum tube to increase cooling efficiency. Any water that evaporates from the vegetable tissue is removed uniformly throughout the product. Therefore, it does not tend to result in visible wilting in most cases. Precautions must be taken so as not to cool the products below their chilling temperature threshold. Vacuum coolers are costly to purchase and operate and are normally used only in high volume operations or are shared among several growers. Commodities that can be cooled readily by vacuum cooling include leafy crops, such as spinach, lettuce, and collards. Summary

When selecting an appropriate cooling method, several factors must be considered, including: the maximum volume of product requiring precooling on a given day, the compatibility of the method with the commodities to be cooled, subsequent storage and shipping conditions, and fixed/variable costs of the system.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

SPECIFIC COMMODITY RECOMMENDATIONS For further information about Insect, Disease and Weed Control, see the appropriate control section of this publication.

ASPARAGUS Varieties1

ASPARAGUS

Jersey Gem Jersey Giant Jersey Knight Jersey Supreme Purple Passion UC157 F1

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

A A A

G

K K K K K

L L L L L L

M M M

N

S S S

M

N N

A A

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Seed Treatment. Check the tag or contact the seed supplier to

determine if seed has been treated. If seed has not been treated, dip seed in a solution containing 1 pint of household bleach per gal of water for 1 to 2 minutes. Provide constant agitation. Use at the rate of 1 gal of household bleach solution per 2 pounds of seed. Prepare a fresh bleach solution for each batch of seed. Wash seed for 5 minutes in running water and dry thoroughly. Rinse with acidified water (1 cup vinegar/gal). Dust or dip in a slurry prepared with 2 ounces of Thiram per 100 pounds of seed. Air dry on a screen before planting. Growing Crowns. To grow crowns, sow seed 1 to 1.5 in deep at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per acre (10 to 12 seeds per ft) in double rows (12 inches apart) on 36 inch centers. Sow seed in the field as indicated in the following table. Crowns must be grown in an area where asparagus crowns have not been grown for 3 years. Planting and Spacing. Plant crowns as indicated in the following, when soil conditions are favorable. Early plantings produce more vegetative growth and more vigorous crowns than late plantings. Space 1-year-old crowns 12 in apart in rows 5 ft apart. Make furrows 6 to 9 inches deep, plant crowns at the bottom of the furrow so that buds are 6 in from the undisturbed surface, and cover with 1 to 2 in of soil. Gradually fill trenches with soil during the growing season until trench is filled.

ASPARAGUS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South MS KY East KY Central KY West NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Crowns 2/15–4/15 1/15–3/15 2/15–4/15 3/15–4/30 3/15–4/15 3/20–4/1 3/15–3/25 3/10–3/20 2/15–3/31 4/1–5/31 2/1–3/15 3/1–4/15 3/1–3/31 2/25–3/15

Greenhouse/Nursery 4/15–5/31 3/15–4/30 4/15–5/31 1/15–3/15 3/15–4/15 5/1–6/1 4/25–5/25 4/10–5/1 4/10–5/15 5/1–6/15 4/1–5/15 4/20–5/31 NR NR

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

G

G

N

TN

T T T T

Brush Removal. Burn brush during the winter to destroy fungi that cause diseases, such as Cercospora and purple spot. (Be sure to obtain a permit in areas where required.) If burning is not done, then mow and drag off stubble. Avoid damage to spear buds by shallow disking.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Cutworms. Early spears are the most heavily damaged because they are the first ones up and the slowest growing. To detect cutworms, dig up to 1/2 inch deep around crowns and use bait if one cutworm larva or one severely damaged spear per 20 plants is found. Asparagus Aphid. Watch for tiny (1/16 inch long), bluish green

aphids building up on brush. Protection may be important in newly seeded plantings and young cutting beds. Asparagus Beetles, Thrips. Apply insecticide when needed during cutting season and late summer. Prevent large numbers of beetles from overwintering and laying eggs on spears in spring by spraying brush in early fall. Daily harvest will minimize exposure to these pests and reduce damage. Because beetles are attracted to brush more than spears, leave a row or two along the woods side of a field and spray this area weekly to control adults. Nematode Management. While nematodes are generally not a major problem on asparagus, the use of Nemacur increases the vigor of the planting, which reduces the incidence of Fusarium root and crown rot as well as control nematodes.

HARVESTING AND STORAGE The first year after planting only harvest an average of 8 spears per plant. In following years, stop harvesting after 6 to 8 weeks. Stop harvest when 40% of spears are smaller than a pencil. Prolonged cutting increases risk of crown rot. Remove spears from field promptly after harvest to maintain freshness and a low fiber content. If Cercospora leaf spot was bad the previous year, stop harvest 10 days sooner. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Page 35

BASIL Varieties1

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

Genovese

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Italian Large Leaf

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Nufar

A

G

L

M

N

S

T

Aroma

A

G

L

M

N

S

Purple Ruffles

A

G

L

M

N

S

Lemon, Mrs. Burns

A

G

L

M

N

S

Sweet Thai

A

G

L

M

N

S

A

G

L

M

N

S

BASIL Sweet

Specialty

Cinnamon

1 Abbreviations

K

T

for state where recommended.

Note: ‘Aroma’ and ‘Nufar’ are Fusarium wilt resistant.

Cultivation. Sow seed 1/8 inch deep. Basil is an easy to grow tender annual. Plant basil in late spring after all danger of frost is past. Grow in full sun in warm, well-drained soil, preferably in raised beds. A light sand to silt loam with a pH of 6.4 is best. Basil may be grown in the field from seed or transplants. Trim transplants to encourage branching and plant in the field when about six inches tall (4 to 6 weeks old). Double-row plantings on 2 to 4 foot wide beds increase yields per acre and helps to shade out weeds. Planting dates may be staggered to provide a continuous supply of fresh leaves throughout the growing season. For fresh-cut basil production, the use of black plastic mulch is highly recommended. Basil will not tolerate moisture stress; provide a regular supply of water through drip or overhead irrigation. Fertilization. Do not over fertilize basil. It is generally suggested that 100 pounds each of N, P2O5, and K2O per acre be broadcast and incorporated at time of planting or follow guidelines for fertilization of salad greens. If more than one harvest is made, sidedress with 15 to 30 pounds N per acre shortly after the first or second cutting. Pest Control. There are few agricultural chemicals registered

for use on basil. To keep weed pressure down, use high plant populations, shallow cultivation, and/or mulch. BT products can be used to control various worms and caterpillars. Genovese, Italian Large Leaf, and lettuce leaf varieties are susceptible to Japanese beetles. Japanese beetle traps set about 20 feet away from the basil will help prevent damage. Reflective mulches,

Page 36

beneficial insects, insecticidal soaps, traps, and handpicking may give some level of control of other insect pests. Keep foliage as dry as possible by watering early in the day, or by using drip irrigation to reduce fungal disease. Rotate herbs to different parts of the field each year and remove and destroy all plant debris to reduce soil borne disease. Fusarium Wilt – Plants infected with this disease usually grow normally until they are 6 to 12 inches tall, then they become stunted and suddenly wilt. Fusarium wilt may persist in the soil for 8 to 12 years. Growers should use Fusarium wilt tested seed or resistant or tolerant varieties. Harvesting and Storage – Leaf yields range from 1 to 3 tons per acre dried or 6 to 10 tons per acre fresh. Foliage may be harvested whenever four sets of true leaves can be left after cutting to initiate growth, but when harvesting for fresh or dried leaves, always cut prior to bloom. Presence of blossoms in the harvested foliage reduces quality. Frequent trimming helps keep plants bushy. For small-scale production of fresh-market basil, the terminal 2- to 3- inch long whorls of leaves may be cut or pinched off once or twice a week. This provides a high-quality product with little stem tissue present. Basil can also be cut and bunched like fresh parsley. A sickle bar type mower with adjustable cutting height is commonly used for harvesting large plantings for fresh and dried production. The optimum storage temperature for fresh basil is 40° to 45° F with a high relative humidity.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

BEANS: LIMA AND SNAP Varieties1

AL

GA

A

G

Dixie Butter Pea

A

G

Early Thorogreen

A

G G

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

L

M

N

S

T

BEANS - Lima Bush (small seeded) Bridgeton Cypress

N

Henderson Bush

A

Jackson Wonder

A

Nemagreen

A

M L

G

S S

M

N N

S

L

M

L

M

S

L

M

N N

S

T

M

N

S

T

M

N

S

S

T

S

Bush (large seeded) Fordhook 242

A

G

Dixie Speckled Butter Pea

A

G

K

Pole (large seeded) Christmas Pole Carolina Sieva

L A

G

L

Florida Butter

L

Florida Speckled King of the Garden

A

Willow Leaf

A

G

L

G

L

M

S N

S

T

T

L

BEANS - Snap Bush (Fresh Market) Ambra

A

Atlantic

A

Bronco

A

G L G

S S S

L

N

L

N

Bush Blue Lake 274

A

G

K

A

G

K

A

G

Charon

N N

K

Caprice Carlo 3

M

N

T T

G

N

T

N

T

Crockett

T

Dusky

L

Eagle Festina

M A

Grenable Hialeah

G

N N

S

L

N

S

L

N

S

A

Hickok

K G

A

Nash

T

G

K

M

N

T

G

Pike Pod Squad

T

G

Lynx Magnum

T

T A

L

Renegade

A

G

Roma II (flat pod)

A

G

K

M M

Shade

N

S

N

Storm

A

G

L

N

S

Strike

A

G

L

N

S

Tapia (flat pod) Valentino

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

N G

L

N

T

Page 37

Varieties1

AL

GA

A

G

A

G

Stringless Blue Lake

A

G

White Seeded Kentucky Wonder 191

A

G

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

K

L

M

M

N

S

TN

BEANS - Snap (con't) Pole Dade

Kentucky Blue

Louisiana Purple Pole McCaslan

Rattle Snake

State (half runner)

Volunteer (half runner) 2

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

2 Not for Coastal Plain areas.

Seed Treatment. To protect against root rots and damping off,

use treated seed or treat with various protectants at manufacturer’s recommendation. Where bacterial blight is a concern, request that seed be treated with streptomycin. Rough handling of seed greatly reduces germination. MARKET SNAPS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/1–7/15 2/10–4/30 5/1–7/15 2/15–4/30 5/1–7/15 4/25–7/25 4/10–8/1 4/1–5/15 3/1–5/31 3/30–5/10 2/10–5/1 3/20–6/15 5/1–8/15 4/1–6/1 4/15–7/1 4/20–6/20 4/1–6/1

Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/15 NR NR NR 8/15–9/15 8/15–9/15 8/15–9/1 8/15–9/20 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/1 7/20–8/1 7/15–8/20 NR

PROCESSING SNAPS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Page 38

Spring 4/1–7/15 2/10–4/30 5/1–7/15 2/15–4/30 5/1–7/15 4/25–7/25 4/10–8/1 4/1–5/15 2/10–4/30 4/1–6/15 5/15–7/31 4/1–6/1 4/15–7/1 4/20–8/20 4/1–7/15

Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/15 NR NR NR 9/5–9/20 8/15–9/20 NR NR 8/1–9/1 7/20–8/1 7/15–8/20 NR

G G

L

L

K K

K

L

M

L L

M

N

T

T

N

N

S

N

S

N

T

T

T

3 Spring production only in Georgia.

LARGE & SMALL LIMAS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/1–7/1 2/10–5/1 5/1–7/1 3/1–5/1 5/10–7/10 5/1–7/20 4/15–7/1 4/1–7/25 3/1–8/15 4/10–6/15 6/1–7/15 4/15–6/1 5/1–6/15 5/1–6/30 4/15–7/15

Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/1 NR NR NR NR NR 7/15–8/1 NR 7/15–8/1 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/20 NR

SPACING

Snap Beans: With rows 30 to 36 inches apart, plant 5 to 7 seeds per foot. To increase yield plant in rows 18 to 24 inches apart with 4 to 6 seeds per foot. Calibrate planter according to seed size. Sow 1 to 1.5 inches deep in light sandy soil; shallower in heavier soil. Lima Beans, Large Seeded: Plant in rows 30 to 36 inches

apart, 2 seeds per foot, 1 to 1.5 inches deep. Lima Beans, Small Seeded: Space rows 30 to 36 inches apart, 2 seeds per foot, 0.75 to 1.25 inches deep (deeper if soil is dry). For mechanically harvested irrigated fields: Rows 18 to 30 inches apart, 4 to 5 inches between plants.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Seed Maggot: See the preceding “Seed Treatment” section, or use approved soil systemic insecticides at planting time if probability of pest outbreak is high. Also see the “Maggots” section in Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control and following “Early Season Control” section.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Experience has shown that effective insect control with systemics usually lasts from 4 to 6 weeks after application. Frequent field inspections are necessary after this period to determine pest incidence and the need for additional spray controls. Thrips: Treatments should be applied if thrips are present from

cotyledon stage to when the first true leaves are established and/or when first blossoms form. Mites: Spot treat areas along edges of fields when white stip-

pling along veins on undersides of leaves is first noticed and 10 mites per trifoliate are present. Aphids: Treat only if aphids are well-distributed throughout the field (50% or more of terminals with five or more aphids), when weather favors population increase, and if beneficial species are lacking. Leafhoppers: Treat only if the number of adults plus nymphs

exceeds 1 to 2 adults per sweep. Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus): Treat only if the number of

adults and/or nymphs exceeds 15 per 50 sweeps from the pin pod stage until harvest. Mexican Bean Beetle: Treat if defoliation exceeds 20% during prebloom or 10% during podding and there is a population potential for further defoliation. These levels of defoliation may result in earlier maturity of the crop. Wait until hatch or adult emer­gence when eggs and pupae are present. On farms with a succession of bean plantings, releases of the larval parasitoid Pediobius foveolatus may provide effective biological control. Contact the local county Extension office for information. Beet Armyworm (BAW), Cabbage Looper (CL). Treat if the number of worms (BAW and CL) averages 15 per 3 feet of row.

Corn Earworm (CEW), Fall Armyworm (FAW). In snap beans, treat every 5 to 7 days if CEW catches in local blacklight traps average 20 or more per night and most corn in the area is mature. The use of pheromone (insect sex attractants) and blacklight traps is very helpful in detecting population buildup of various insects. For limas, treat when CEW populations exceed one per 6 feet of row from the late flat pod stage to harvest. For both lima bean types, treatment should be timed when 50% or more of the CEW and/or FAW populations reach a length of 1/2 inch or longer. Treating too early for young CEW/ FAW populations will eliminate natural control and may result in the need for additional sprays for reinfestations. See “How to Improve Pest Control” for insect sampling techniques. Consult a pest management specialist for more refined decision-making. Whiteflies: Treat when whiteflies exceed five adults per fully

expanded leaflet. Nematode Management. Use nematicides listed in the

“Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. Soybean cyst nematode, races I and III, are present in soybeans in some areas. Snap beans are susceptible, but small seeded lima beans are resistant to this nematode. Growers who rotate snap beans with soybeans should be alert to the possibility of problems in infested fields. NO-TILL When planning to use no-till practices, give consideration to bean variety, date of planting, soil fertility practices, insect control, planting equipment, cover crop, and weed species in the field. HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

European Corn Borer (ECB)–Snap Beans Only. Treat when moth catches in local blacklight traps average five or more per night. The first application should be applied during the bud–early bloom stage and the second application during the late bloom–early pin stage. Additional sprays may be needed between the pin spray and harvest. Consult a pest management specialist for local black- light trap information and recommended spray intervals.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 39

BEETS Varieties1 BEETS

Bull's Blood (for greens)

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

S

T

N

S

T

N

S

N

S

Chariot

L

Centurion

L

Detroit Dark Red

A

G

K

L

Red Ace

A

G

K

L

Red Pack Ruby Queen

A

Solo

G

K

L

K

L

Scarlet Supreme Warrior

K

T

L

N

S

L

N

S

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Beets are frost tolerant and produce the best commercial quality when grown during cool temperatures [50° to 65°F (10° to 18.3°C)]. Lighter color and wider zoning within the root occur during rapid growth in warm temperatures. Seedstalks will form if exposed to 2 or 3 weeks of temperatures below 50°F after several true leaves have formed. Seeding and Spacing. Optimum germination temperatures range between 50° to 85°F. Sow seed 1/2 to 3/4 in deep at the rate of 15 to 18 seeds per foot of row. Space rows 15 to 20 inches apart; thin plants to 3 inches apart.

BEET PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 3/20–4/15 3/15–4/10 3/10–4/1 2/1–3/31 2/1–3/31 NR 3/1–4/15 4/1–5/31 2/15–3/31 3/15–5/31 3/15–4/15 3/1–4/1

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–11/15 9/15–11/15 NR 8/1–9/15 7/15–8/15 8/15–9/30 7/15–8/31 9/1–9/30 9/15–10/1

Harvesting and Storage. Market beets are hand-harvested when 1- 3/4 to 2 inches in diameter. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Page 40

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

BROCCOLI, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, COLLARDS, KALE, AND KOHLRABI Varieties1

BROCCOLI Early Belstar Decathlon 10 Gypsy 10 Olympus Packman Windsor 10 Mid-season Emperor Green Magic 11 Marathon 5,6,7,10 Patron 10 Premium Crop 10 TLALOC Late-season Arcadia 6,10 Diplomat 10 Emerald Pride Greenbelt 5,6,8,10 Patriot 5,10 Pinnacle Triathlon 10

AL

GA

A A

G G

A

G

A A A A A A A A A

CABBAGE: green A&C No.5+

Almanac Bayou Dynasty Bejo 2635 Blue Dynasty 4,6,9 Blue Thunder 4,6,8,9 Blue Vantage 4,6,8,9 Bravo 6,9 Bronco 4,9 Cheers 6,8,9 Conquest Early Thunder 4,6,9,10 Emblem 4,6,9 Gideon 4,9 Golden Dynasty 9 Gourmet 9 Hercules Lynx 4,6,9 Market Prize Platinum Dynasty 4,6,9 Quisto Ramada 4,9 Rio Verde 8,9 Royal Vantage 4,6,8,9 Savoy Ace 4,6,8 Silver Cup Silver Dynasty 4,6,9 Solid Blue 780 6,9 Thunderhead 4,6,9 Vantage Point 4,6,8,9

G G G G G G G G

KY

K K K

G

A A A A

G G

A

G

G

L L L L

MS

M

N

M

N

L L L

M

K

L

M

K

L L L

K K

L L

M

K K K K

L

M

M M M M

L G

L L L

G A A

A

G

G G G G

A

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

G

K

K

M

M M L L

M

L

M

L

M

L

TN

S

T T T T

T

N N

T

S

T

S

M

L L L

SC

N N

N

L K

NC

T

K K K

G A

LA

N

N N N N N N N N N

S

S

S S S S

T T T T T T T

N

S

T

N

S

T

N

S

N N N

S S

T

N

S

T

N N N

S S

T

T

Page 41

Varieties1

CABBAGE: red Azurro 4,8 Cardinal 9 Red Dynasty 4,6 Red Rookie Ruby Perfection 6

CAULIFLOWER Candid Charm Cumberland Early Snowball Freedom Fremont Graffiti Incline Majestic Minuteman Symphony Snow Crown Super Snowball Wentworth White Magic White Passion COLLARDS Blue Max 2 Champion Flash Georgia Southern 3 Heavi-Crop Morris Heading Top Bunch 2 Top Pick Vates KALE Blue Armor Blue Knight Premier Siberian Squire Vates Winterbor KOHLRABI Early Purple Vienna Grand Duke

AL

GA

KY

A A A A

G G G G

K K

A

G

K

A A

G G G G

LA

L

L L

K

L L

K

L L

A A

G G G G

A A

G G

A

G

A A A

G G G

A A A

G G G

K

A A

MS

L L L L L

SC

N N N N

S S S

T T

T T

M

M M M M

K

L L L

M

G G

K K

L L

M M

A

G

K

L

M

A

G

K K

L

M

A A

G

K K

M M

N N

S S

N

S

N N N N N N N N N

S

N N N N N N N

S S S S S S S

N N

S S

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

5 Hollow stem tolerance/resistance.

9 Fusarium yellows tolerance/resistance.

2 Bolting tolerant.

6 Black rot tolerance/resistance.

10 Downy mildew tolerance/resistance.

3 Bolting susceptible.

7 Bacterial leaf spot tolerance/resistance.

11 Powdery mildew tolerance/resistance.

4 Tip burn tolerant.

8 Bacterial speck tolerance/resistance.

Page 42

TN

N

L L

K K K

NC

S S S S S S

T

T T T

T T T

T T T

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Seed Treatment. Check with seed supplier to determine if seed

is hot-water treated for black rot control. If not, soak seed at 122°F . Use a 20-minute soak for broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, and Chinese cabbage. Soak Brussels sprouts and cabbage for 25 minutes. Note. Hot water seed treatment may reduce seed germination. Following either treatment above, dry the seed, then dust with Captan or Thiram at 1 level teaspoon per pound of seed (3 ounces per 100 pounds). BROCCOLI PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/1–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/15–3/15 1/15–3/10 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 3/1–4/10 3/20–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/5

CABBAGE PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 4/1–4/15 3/15–3/25 3/01–3/15 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/5–4/1 1/15–3/15 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15

Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 8/1–10/31 8/1–10/31 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 9/1–9/30 8/15–9/15 8/1–8/31 8/10–8/31

Fall NR 8/1–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 6/20–7/1 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/01 8/1–11/30 8/1–11/30 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/15–9/30 7/15–8/30 7/25–8/15 8/25–9/15

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

CAULIFLOWER PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 2/15–3/15 1/15–3/10 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 3/1–4/10 3/20–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15

COLLARDS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 2/15–6/30 1/15–5/31 3/15–7/31 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/10–4/25 3/1–4/15 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/15–5/1 2/15–4/15

Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–8/30 7/15–8/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/20

Fall 7/15–10/15 7/15–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/30 8/1–9/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/20

Page 43

KALE PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 4/1–4/30 3/20–4/15 3/10–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/15–5/1 2/15–4/15

KOHLRABI PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/31 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/30 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/1 8/15–9/15

Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–8/15 8/15–8/30

PLASTIC MULCH Early spring cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli are frequently grown using plastic mulch, with black mulch used in the spring and white or painted mulch used in the fall.

ready for field planting 4 to 6 weeks after seeding. Storage of pulled, field-grown cabbage transplants should not exceed 9 days at 32°F or 5 days at 66°F prior to planting in the field. Precision seeders can be used for direct seeding. However, seed should be sown 15 to 20 days in advance of the normal transplant date for the same maturity date. Early varieties require 85 to 90 days from seeding to harvest, and main-season crops require 110 to 115 days. Set transplants in rows 2 to 3 feet apart and 9 to 15 inches apart in the row for early plantings and 9 to 18 inches apart for late plantings, depending on variety, fertility, and market use. Cauliflower. Start seed in greenhouse or protected frames 4 to 6

weeks before planting. Use 1 ounce of seed for 3,000 plants. Set transplants in rows 3 to 4 feet apart, and plants are set 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. Make successive plantings in the field at dates indicated in preceding table. Collards and Kale. Seed at the rate of 2 pounds per acre and thin to desired spacing. For precision, air-assist planters use 1/3 to 1⁄2 pound per acre for twin rows on 3 foot centers, or use half of this rate for single rows on 3 foot centers. When using transplants, set plants in rows 16 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 18 inches apart within the row. Kohlrabi. Transplants may be used for a spring crop. Seed 6

weeks before expected transplant date. Use precision seeder for hybrid varieties. Space rows 18 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 8 between plants. Bolting. Bolting in cabbage, collards and kale, and buttoning in cauliflower, can occur if the early-planted crop is subjected to 10 or more continuous days of temperatures between 35° to 50°F. However, sensitivity to bolting depends upon the variety.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGMENT Note: The use of a spreader-sticker is recommended for cole

crops in any case; the heavy wax coating on the leaves reduces deposition of spray materials. These adjuvants allow the spray to spread out and stick to the leaves. Multiple nozzles per row or bed will provide the under leaf coverage and high coverage rates necessary to manage caterpillar pests of cole crops. INSECT MANAGEMENT

Broccoli. Field seeding: Space rows 36 inches apart; plants 12

Aphids: The cabbage aphid can be a serious problem on these

to 18 inches apart in row; seed 1/2 to 1 pound per acre.

crops and should be treated immediately if noticed. Other aphid species are found on these crops and should be treated if the crop is near harvest or their level of infestation is increasing. Often parasitic wasps take out these species if broad-spectrum insecticides use is avoided.

Transplants: Sow 10 seeds per foot of row in rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Set transplants 12 to 18 inches apart in rows 36 inches apart (14,520 plants per acre). High population for bunched broccoli: 2 to 4 rows per bed, rows 18 to 20 inches apart, plants 9 to 10 inches in row (27,000 to 32,000 plants per acre). This requires a more intensive disease managment system. Cabbage. The early cabbage crop is grown from transplants seeded at the rate of 1 ounce for 3,000 plants. Transplants are Page 44

Cabbage Root Maggot: Root maggots and other similar insects

such as the seed corn maggot can be a problem in heavier soils in the Southeast especially during cool, damp times of the year. Avoid planting into soils with freshly plowed down crop residue or high levels of organic matter. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Caterpillars: A number of moth and butterfly larvae feed on

cole crops. The major ones are the cabbage looper (CL), the imported cabbageworm (ICW), and the diamondback moth (DBM) referred to as the cabbageworm complex. Other caterpillars found on cole crops are the cross-striped cabbageworm, corn earworm, armyworms, and webworms. Webworms often damage the bud of the young plants and should be treated immediately; very young larvae are much more easily managed than older ones. Scouting and using a threshold for spray applications is a cost effective method of managing these pests. Broad-spectrum insecticides that reduce the natural enemies in the field should be avoided if at all possible. If the cabbageworm complex is the major group of pests, a threshold of 1 cabbage looper equivalent (CLE) per 10 plants can be used. A cabbage looper equivalent relates the feeding amounts of the three caterpillars. One cabbage looper is equivalent to 1.5 imported cabbageworms or 5 diamondback moth larvae. (Example: 10 DBM larvae per 10 plants would be like 2 CLEs per 10 plants; this level would require treatment.) In other areas of the South where armyworms are common pests of cole crops, a threshold of 1 caterpillar (regardless of the kind) per 3 plants has been effectively used as a threshold. The use of a threshold to determine the need for treatment usually reduces the number of sprays per crop without loss of crop quality and improves the profit margin. Note: Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) preparations are effective against most of these pests but must be eaten by the larvae. Thorough coverage of the plant particularly the undersurface of the leaf is essential, and the use of a spreader-sticker is strongly recommended.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Note: Several of these insects are prone to develop resistance to insecticides. Growers must rotate among classes of insecticides for each pest generation. See the section on resistance management. Nematode Management. Use nematicides listed in the

“Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. HARVESTING AND STORAGE Fresh market cabbage should be harvested when heads are firm and weigh 2.5 to 3.0 pounds. Most markets require one to three wrapper leaves to remain. The heads should be dense and free of insect damage. Cabbage for slaw or kraut usually has much larger heads and weighs 3 to 12 pounds. Broccoli should be harvested when the beads (flower buds) are still tight, but a few outer beads have begun to loosen. The stalks should be 7 inches long from top of the crown to the butt. Broccoli is usually bunched in 1.5 pound bunches with 2 to 3 heads per bunch. Secure bunches with a rubber band or twist tie. Kohlrabi should be harvested when the bulbs are 2 to 3 inches in diameter and before internal fibers begin to harden. Cauliflower is harvested while the heads are pure white and before the curds become loose and ricey. Heads are blanched by tying outer leaves over the heads when heads are 3 to 4 inches in diameter. Blanching takes about 1 week in hot weather and 2 weeks in cooler weather. Kale is harvested by cutting off the entire plant near ground level, or lower leaves may be stripped from plant. Collards may be harvested at any stage of growth. See Table 14 for further postharvest information on these crops.

Page 45

CARROTS Varieties1

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

N

S

L

M

N

S

TN

CARROTS

A&C Nantes Apache

G

Big Sur

M

Cheyenne

A

Choctaw

A

Danvers 126

A

G

K

Enterprise

N

S

L

N

S

L

N

S

L

Maverick

G

L

Narbonne

N

Navajo Purple

A A

Haze2

Sugar Snax 54 Tastypeel Top Notch

K

L

G

L

G

L

M

N

S

N

S

N

T

A

not withstand hard freezes but are somewhat frost tolerant. Optimum temperatures are in the range of 60-70°F, with daytime highs of 75°F and nighttime lows of 55°F ideal. Although the crop can be grown outside this range with little or no effect on tops, temperatures differing drastically from the above can adversely affect root color, texture, flavor, and shape. Lower temperatures in this range may induce slow growth and make roots longer, more slender and lighter in color. Carrots with a root less than one inch in diameter are more susceptible to cold injury than larger roots. Soil temperatures should be above 40°F and below 85°F for best stand establishment. CARROT PLANTING DATES

Spring 3/1–4/15 NR 3/1–4/15 NR 4/1-4/30 3/20-4/15 3/10-4/10 1/15–2/28 1/15–2/28 2/15–4/1 1/15–3/15 2/15–3/31 4/1–6/15 2/1–3/15 2/15–3/31 3/15-5/1 3/1-4/30

N

S

2 Purple.

Seeding Dates. Small carrot seedlings up to six leaves can-

Page 46

G

L

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

T

Fall NR 8/1–11/30 NR 8/1–11/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/15 9/15–10/15 NR NR 6/15–8/15 7/21-8/15 9/1–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR NR

SPACING Spatial arrangements for planting can differ markedly. Carrots can be planted with vacuum, belt, or plate seeders. Often a special attachment called a scatter plate or spreader shoe is added to the plate planters to scatter the seed in a narrow band. Carrots should be spaced 1½ to 2 inches apart within the row. Carrot seed should be planted no deeper than ¼-½ inch. A final stand of 14 to 18 plants per foot of twin row is ideal. Ideal patterns are twin rows that are 2½ -3½ inches apart. Three or four of these twin rows are situated on one bed, depending on the width of the bed. One arrangement is to plant three twin rows on beds that are on 72-inch centers. Another arrangement is to plant four twin rows on a 92-inch bed (center to center). The sets of twin rows are 14 to 18 inches apart. Beds on 72-inch centers will have approximately 48 inches of formed bed. Row spacing wider than 18 inches will reduce total plant stand per acre and thus, will reduce total yield. Ideal plant populations should be in the range of 400,000 for fresh market carrots and 250,000 for processing carrots. PLANTING AND LAND PREPARATION Beds that are slightly raised are advantageous because they allow for good drainage. Beds should be firmed and not freshly tilled before planting and soil should be firmed over the seed at planting. A basket or roller attachment is often used to firm the soil over the seed as they are planted. Light irrigation will be required frequently during warm, dry periods for adequate germination. Windbreaks are almost essential in areas with primarily sandy soils. Sand particles moved by wind can severely damage young carrot plants, reducing stands. Small grain strips planted between beds or at least planted between every few beds can help reduce this sandblasting injury. Begin by deep turning soils to bury any litter and debris and Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

breaking soils to a depth of 12-14 inches. Compacted soils or those with tillage pans should be subsoiled to break the compacted areas. If uncorrected, compact soil or tillage pans can result in restriction of root expansion. It is best to apply lime after deep turning to prevent turning up acid soil after lime application. Prepare a good seedbed using bed-shaping equipment. Do not use disks or rototiller to avoid soil compaction. Carrots should be planted on a slightly raised bed (2-3 inches) to improve drainage. After beds are tilled and prepared for seeding, it is best to allow the beds to settle slightly before planting. Avoid other tillage practices that can increase soil compaction. Following in the same tracks for all field operations will help reduce compaction in planting areas.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT DISEASE MANAGEMENT Root-Knot Nematode. By far, the most destructive problem in carrots is root-knot nematodes. Root-knot nematodes are small eel-like worms that live in the soil and feed on plant roots. Since the root of the carrot is the harvested portion of the plant, no root-knot damage can be allowed. Root-knot causes poor growth and distorted or deformed root systems which results in a non marketable root. Root-knot damage also allows entry for other diseases such as Fusarium, Pythium, and Erwinia. If any root-knot nematodes are found in a soil assay, treatment is recommended. Good success has been obtained using field soil fumigation to eradicate root-knot nematodes in the root zone of carrots. See fumigation recommendations. SOIL-BORNE ROOT DISEASES Depending on the cropping history of the field, Pythium, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia may cause problems. It is advisable to avoid fields where these diseases have been identified in the previous crop. Deep turning is also necessary to help prevent root diseases. Pythium Blight is usually characterized by flagging of the foliage indicating some root damage is occurring. Under wet conditions, Pythium may cause serious problems to the root causing a white mycelium mat to grow on the infected area which rapidly turns to a watery soft rot. Forking of the root system is also a common symptom associated with Pythium infection. Rotation is considered a major factor in reducing Pythium along with the use of fungicides. Southern Blight. Southern blight causes serious damage to car-

rots. This disease is usually associated with carrots remaining in the field after the soil begins to warm in the spring. This disease causes a yellow top to develop with a cottony white fungal growth associated with the upper part of the carrot root. The top of the root and the surrounding soil may be covered with a white mycelium with tan sclerotia developing as the disease progresses. Southern Blight is best controlled by using rotation and deep turning.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Sclerotinia Blight. Sclerotinia blight causes serious damage to the roots of carrots. This disease is usually worse under wet soil conditions. White mycelium forms around the infected area and later, dark sclerotia develop on the white mycelium which is a good indicator of Sclerotinia rot. This disease causes a progressive watery soft rot of the carrot root tissue and is considered a potential problem in the production of carrots. Rotation and deep turning of the soil are recommended to reduce losses to this disease. Rhizoctonia. Rhizoctonia rot causes brown to black lesions to develop on the sides of the carrot root. The disease is much worse under cool, wet conditions. Saturated soil conditions often enhance all soil-borne diseases which are potential problems in carrot production. Rhizoctonia damage can be minimized by using rotation and good cultural practices. Soil fumigation will prevent damage with any of the soil inhabiting fungi.

FOLIAR DISEASES Bacterial Blight. Bacterial blight causes irregular brown spots on the leaves and dark brown streaks on the petioles and stems. The lesions on the foliage begin as small yellow areas with the centers becoming dry and brittle, with an irregular halo. The bacterium affects the leaflets, stems and petioles as the disease progresses. Some of these lesions may crack open and ooze the bacteria. These bacteria may be washed down to the crown of the plant causing brown lesions on the top of the root. The earlier the infection occurs the greater the damage to the root. The bacterium is spread by splashing water and takes about 10-12 days before symptoms appear after inoculation. Disease development progresses rapidly between 77˚ and 86˚ F. Crop rotation is a major factor in controlling Bacterial blight. Alternaria Blight. Alternaria blight causes small dark brown

to black spots with yellow edges forming mostly on the leaf margins. The spot increases as the disease progresses and in some cases entire leaflets may be killed. In moist weather, the disease can move so rapidly it resembles frost injury. Such conditions can reduce the efficiency of mechanical harvesters which require strong healthy tops to remove the carrot from the soil. Alternaria may also cause damping off of seedlings and a black decay of roots. The spores and mycelium are spread by splashing rains, contaminated soil, or on cultivation tools. The disease can manifest itself in about 10 days after infection. The optimum temperature for Alternaria blight is 82˚ F. Cercospora Leaf Blight. Cercospora blight causes lesions to form on the leaves, petioles and stems of the carrot plant. The symptoms appear to mimic that of Alternaria blight but can be separated using a compound microscope. Cercosproa blight progresses in warm, wet weather and spots appear in about 10 days after infection. The youngest leaves are usually more susceptible to Cercosproa infection.

INSECT MANAGEMENT Soil Insects. Wireworms, white grubs, and the granulate cutworm may be partially controlled with good cultural practices. Page 47

Soil should be deep turned in sufficient time prior to planting to allow destruction of previous crop residue that may harbor soil insects. When possible, avoid planting just after crops that are slow to decompose such as tobacco and corn. Avoid planting behind peanuts and root crops such as sweet potatoes and turnips. If a field has a history of soil insect problems, either avoid these or, broadcast incorporate a soil insecticide prior to planting. Plantings in fields that were recently in permanent pasture should be avoided as should fields recently planted to sod/turf, although these are not as critical. Fields with a history of whitefringed beetle larvae should not be planted to carrots because there are no currently registered insecticides effective on this pest. Flea beetle larvae can damage roots by feeding from the surface into the cortex. The damage will take on the appearance of narrow “s” shaped canals on the surface. Flea beetle larvae can be prevented easily with soil insecticides. The seedcorn maggot is an opportunistic pest that takes advantage of crops that are under stress or where there is decaying organic matter. At-planting soil insecticides will prevent the development of maggot infestations for several weeks after planting. Seedcorn maggots cannot be effectively controlled after the infestation begins. If plants become stressed during the period of high root maggot potential, preventive applications of insecticides should be sprayed every seven days until the stress is minimized. FOLIAR INSECTS Foliar insect pests may be monitored and insecticides applied as needed. Carrots should be scouted at least once per week for developing populations of foliage pests. Aphids. Several species of aphids may develop on carrots. The most common aphids to inhabit carrots are the green peach aphid and the cotton or melon aphid. Often parasitic wasps and fungal diseases will control these aphids. If populations persist and colonize plants rapidly over several weeks and honeydew or sooty mold is observed readily, then foliar insecticides are justified.

Page 48

Flea beetles. Fleas beetle adults may cause severe damage

to the foliage on occasion. If carrots are attacked during the seedling stage and infestations persist over time, an insecticide application may be necessary. If plants are in the cotyledon to first true leaf stage, treatments should be made if damage or flea beetles are observed on more than 5% of the plants. After plants are well established, flea beetles should be controlled only if foliage losses are projected to be moderate to high, e.g., 15% or more. Vegetable Weevil. The adult and larvae of the vegetable weevil

may attack carrots. The adult and larvae feed on the foliage. Vegetable weevil larvae often will feed near the crown of plants and, if shoulders are exposed at the soil surface, larvae will feed on tender carrots. Treatments are justified if adults or larvae and damage are easily found in several locations. Armyworms. The armyworm can cause damage in carrots. Armyworms may move from grain crops or weeds into carrots or adults may lay eggs directly on carrot plants. Armyworms are easily managed with foliar insecticides. Beet Armyworm. The beet armyworm infests carrots in the late

spring. Usually natural predators and especially parasites regulate beet armyworm populations below economically damaging levels. Whiteflies. The silverleaf whitefly can be a problem during

the early seedling stage of fall plantings. Silverleaf whitefly migrates from agronomic crops and other vegetables during the late summer. Infestation may become severe on carrots grown in these production areas. Often whiteflies may be controlled by several natural enemies and diseases by early fall so, treatments may not be justified. However, if whiteflies develop generally heavy populations, treatment of young plantings is justified. HAVESTING AND STORAGE Topped: 4 to 5 months at 32°F and 90% to 95% relative humidity. See Table 14 for further post harvest information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

CUCUMBERS Varieties1

CUCUMBERS Slicer / Fresh Market

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

Cobra 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 2,3,4,5,6,10

Dasher II

Daytona 2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10 General Lee 4,5,6,10

Indy 2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10

Intimidator 2,3,4,6,10

T A

G

K

L

A

G

K

L

A

G

K

L

K

L

N

S

T

G

K

L

N

S

T

A

M M

N

S

T

N

S

T

N

S

Poinsett 76 2,3,5,10

A

G

Rockingham 2, 3, 5, 6, 10

A

G

Speedway 2,3,5,6,10

L

N

S

A

G

K

L

N

S

G

K

L

N

S

Slice More 2,4,5,6,10

StoneWall 2,3,4,5,6,10

M

K

G

N

S

N

S

Sweet Success

T T

Talledega 2,3,5,9,10

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

Thunder

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

G

K

L

M

3,4,5,6,8,10

TN

T

Pickling Types - Multiple Harvest Arabian

A

Calypso 2,3,4,5,6,10

A

Colt

A

N

S S

N

S

Eureka

Fancipak 2,3,4,5,6,10 Jackson 2,3,4,5,6,10

Kirby Vlasset

T A

G

S

T T T

2,3,4,5,6,10

N

S

A

N

S

A

N

S

Fiesty

A

N

S

Lafayette

A

N

S

A

N

Pickling Types - Multiple or Once-over Harvest Excursion 2,3,4,5,6,10

Expedition 2,3,5,6,10

Sassy 2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10 Vlas Pik

2,3,4,5,6,10

N

Vlasstar 2,3,4,5,6,10 5 Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance.

3 Angular Leaf Spot tolerance/resistance.

7 Papaya Ring Spot Virus tolerance/resistance.

4 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance.

S

N

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. 2 Anthracnose tolerance/resistance.

T

6 Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

9 Watermelon Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance. 10 Scab tolerance/resistance.

8 Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.

For earlier cucumber production and higher, more concentrated yields, use gynoecious varieties. A gynoecious plant produces only female flowers. Upon pollination female flowers will develop into fruit. To produce pollen, 10% to 15% pollinizer plants must be planted; seed suppliers add this seed to the gynoecious variety. Both pickling and slicing gynoecious varieties are available. For machine harvest of pickling cucumbers, high plant populations (55,000 per acre or more) concentrate fruit maturity for increased yields.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Planting Dates. For earliness container-grown transplants are

planted when daily mean soil temperatures have reached 60°F but most cucumbers are direct seeded. Consult the following table for planting dates for transplants in your area. Early plantings should be protected from winds with hot caps or row covers. Growing on plastic mulch can also enhance earliness.

Page 49

CUCUMBER SLICERS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/1–7/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/10-6/1 5/5-6/1 4/25-5/15 3/15–5/15 3/1–5/15 4/1–5/15 3/15–5/1 4/15–5/15 5/15–7/31 3/15–5/15 4/15–6/5 5/5-6/15 5/1-6/1

Fall 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 6/1-6/15 6/1-7/1 5/15-7/15 7/15–8/31 8/1–9/15 7/25–8/21 8/14–9/14 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 7/1-8/10 7/25-8/25

CUCUMBER PICKLING PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/10-6/1 5/5-6/1 4/25-5/15 4/1–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/1–4/15 4/20–5/20 5/25–7/31 3/15-5/15 4/15–6/15 5/5-6/15 5/1-6/1

Fall 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/15 6/1-6/15 6/1-7/1 5/15-7/15 7/15–8/31 8/1–9/15 NR 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 7/1-8/10 7/25-8/25

Spacing. Slicers: Space rows 3 to 4 feet apart with plants 9 to 12 inches apart. Pickles: For hand harvest, space 3 to 4 feet apart; for machine harvest, space three rows 24–28 inches apart on a bed. Plants for hand harvest should be 6 to 8 inches apart in the row; 2 to 4 inches apart for machine harvest. Close spacing increases yields, provides more uniform maturity and reduces weed problems, but require slightly higher fertilizer rates. Seed for slicers: 1.5 pounds per acre. Seed for pickles: 2 to 5 pounds per acre. Mulching. Fumigated soil aids in the control of weeds and soilborne diseases. Black plastic mulch laid before field planting conserves moisture, increases soil temperature, and increases early and total yield. Plastic and fumigant should be applied on well-prepared planting beds 2 to 4 weeks before field planting. Plastic should be placed immediately over the fumigated soil. The soil must be moist when laying the plastic. Fumigation alone may not provide satisfactory weed control under clear plastic. Herbicides labeled and recommended for use on cucumPage 50

bers may not provide satisfactory weed control when used under clear plastic mulch on nonfumigated soil. Black plastic can be used without a herbicide. Fertilizer must be applied during bed preparation. At least 50% of the nitrogen (N) should be in the nitrate (NO3) form. Foil and other reflective mulches can be used to repel aphids that transmit viruses in fall-planted (after July 1) cucumbers. Direct seeding through the mulch is recommended for maximum virus protection. Fumigation will be necessary when there is a history of soilborne diseases in the field. Growers should consider drip irrigation with plastic mulch. For more information, see the section on “Irrigation”. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Cucumber* (N:K,1:2) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 25.0 45.0 0-14 0.9 1.8 37.6 75.2 15-63 1.5 3.0 110.3 196.6 64-77 0.7 1.4 120.1 216.6

Alternative Fertigation Schedule for Cucumber* (N:K,1:1) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 24.0 24.0 0-7 1.0 1.0 31.0 31.0 8-21 1.5 1.5 52.0 52.0 22-63 2.0 2.0 136.0 136.0 64-70 1.5 1.5 150.0 150.0 *Adjust based on tissue analysis.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Seed Corn Maggot: (See preceding “Seed Treatment” section. Also see “Maggots” section in Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control.) Cucumber Beetle: Cucumber beetles can transmit bacterial

wilt; however, losses from this disease vary greatly from field to field and among different varieties. Pickling cucumbers grown in high-density rows for once-over harvesting can compensate for at least 10% stand losses. On farms with a history of bacterial wilt infections and where susceptible cultivars are used, foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively on the cotyledons and first true leaves. Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields. Treatments may be required until stems begin vining (usually about 3 weeks after plant emergence), at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections. An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

of Admire at planting. Note: Use of Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season. Pickleworm, Melonworm: Make one treatment prior to fruit set,

and then treat weekly. Aphids: Aphids transmit several viruses (CMV, WMV,

PRSV-W, etc.) and can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. For further information on aphid controls, see the preceding “Mulching” section. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed. Mites: Mite infestations generally begin around field margins

and grassy areas. CAUTION: DO NOT mow or maintain these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. Begin treatment when 50% of the terminal leaves show infestation. Note: Continuous use of Sevin or the pyrethroids may result in mite outbreaks.

faster drainage following rainfall. In addition, when vining begins, apply a crop protectant every 14 days. Do not make more than four applications per crop. Apply Bravo on alternate weeks to control other diseases. Belly Rot: Belly rot is a soil-borne disease. Application of appropriate crop protectant at last cultivation may be helpful. Weed Management: See the previous “Mulching” section for

futher information on weed control under clear plastic mulch. Nematode Management. Use nematicides listed in the

“Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT

POLLINATION Honey bees are important for good fruit set. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours when bees are not in flight. See the section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations.

disease, fields should be adequately drained to ensure that soil water does not accumulate around the base of the plants. Just before plants begin vining, subsoil between rows to allow for

HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

Phytophthora Blight: To minimize the occurrence of this

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 51

EGGPLANT Varieties1

EGGPLANT

AL

GA

A

G

A

G

A

G

KY

Black Bell

Calliope 2

Casper 3 Classic Epic

Ghost Buster 3 Green Giant 5 Gretel 3,6 Hansel6

Ichiban 6

Little Fingers 6

Night Shadow

Pingtung Long 6 Rosalita

M

N

S

T

L

M

N

S

T

M

N

S

T

L

M

N

S

T

A

G

K

A

G

A

G

K

A

G

K

A

G

K

M M L

K

A

G

A

G

A

G

A

G

M M

Seed Treatment. Soak seed in hot water at 122°F for 25 min-

utes. Dry seed, then dip in a slurry or dust with Thiram at the rate of 2/3 teaspoon per pound of seed (4 ounces per 100 pounds).

S

T

N

S

T

N

S

T T

N

S

N

S

N

S

T

S

T

S

T

N M M K

4 Purple exterior with white stripes.

Eggplant is a warm-season crop that makes its best growth at temperatures between 70° to 85°F. Temperatures below 65°F result in poor growth and fruit set.

T

L

3 White exterior.

Fall NR 7/15–8/31 NR 7/15–8/31 NR NR NR 7/1–8/15 7/1–8/30 NR 8/1-8/31 8/1–8/15 NR 8/1–8/31 NR NR NR

S

L

G

Page 52

L

K

G

Spring 4/1–7/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-6/1 5/10-6/15 5/1-7/1 4/15–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/15-6/15 3/1-4/30 4/15–5/10 5/15–7/15 4/1–4/30 5/1–6/30 4/25-7/15 4/15-6/15

T

K

A

AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

M M

G

A

EGGPLANT PLANTING DATES

S

L

G

Rosita

2 White exterior with purple streaks.

N

TN

A

Santana 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

SC

L

A

Kermit 6,7

NC

A

A

Long Tom 6

MS

M K

Dusky Fairy Tale 4

LA

L 5 Green exterior.

6 Small diameter fruit.

N N N

7 Green and white exterior.

Spacing. Rows: 4 to 5 feet apart; plants: 2 to 3 feet apart in the

row. Staking. Staking eggplant improves quality and yield, while reducing decay. Use a 5 foot tomato stake between every other plant and place string along each side of the plants as they grow. This is described in detail in the tomato section of this guide. Side branches of eggplant should be pruned up to the first fruit and 2 main stems should be used. If additional stems grow too large remove them. The first fruit should be pruned off until the flower is at least 8 inches above the ground, this will allow for straight fruit to form. Transplant Production. Sow seed in the greenhouse 8 to 10 weeks before field planting. Three to 4 ounces of seed are necessary to produce plants for 1 acre. Optimum temperatures for germination and growth are 70° to 75°F. Seedlings should be transplanted to 2-inch or larger pots or containers anytime after the first true leaves appear, or seed can be sown directly into the pots and thinned to a single plant per pot. Control aphids on seedlings in greenhouse before transplanting to field. Transplanting Dates. Harden plants for a few days at 60° to

65°F and set in field after danger of frost and when average daily temperatures have reached 65° to 70°F. Drip Irrigation and Fertilization. Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and in the absence of a soil test, apply fertilizer to Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

supply 50 pounds per acre of N,P2O5 and K2O, (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K20). Thoroughly incorporate into the soil. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should be initiated using the following table. On low to low-medium boron soils, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after fieldtransplanting the eggplant. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT

Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB), Flea Beetles (FB): CPB has the ability to rapidly develop resistance to insecticides. Refer to “Eggplant” insecticide section for management options. Control of many early season pests including CPB, FB, whiteflies, and aphids can be accomplished through the use of Admire at planting. The use of row covers can be highly effective for flea beetle management early in the season. Silverleaf Whitefly: Treat when an average of 5 or more adults

are found per leaf. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Eggplant (high soil potassium) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 50.0 100.0 0-22 0.5 0.5 60.5 110.5 22-49 0.7 0.7 80.1 130.1 50-70 1.0 1.0 101.1 151.1 71-91 1.1 1.1 124.2 174.2 92-112 1.0 2.0 145.2 195.2

Alternative Fertigation Schedule for Eggplant* (low soil potassium) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 50.0 100.0 0-22 0.5 0.5 60.5 111.0 22-49 0.7 1.4 80.1 150.2 50-70 1.0 2.0 101.1 192.5 71-91 1.1 2.2 124.2 238.7 92-112 1.0 2.0 145.2 280.7 * Adjust based on tissue analysis.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Weed Management. See ”Mulching” section for further infor-

mation on weed control under clear plastic mulch. RATOONING EGGPLANT: PRODUCING A FALL CROP FROM A SPRING PLANTED CROP Ratooning eggplants can be done after the first crop is complete to allow a second crop to develop. Depending on the location, the first crop may be completed by June or July. Plants at this point will appear “topped out,” not producing any more flowers and any subsequent fruits. Mow plants 6 to 8 inches above the soil line, being sure to leave two to three leaf axils. Next, fertilize with 50 to 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre and 80 to 100 pounds of potash per acre (K2O). This combination will produce vigorous re-growth and stimulate flowering. Plants will begin producing fruit 4 to 6 weeks after ratooning and should produce eggplants until frost. HARVESTING AND STORAGE Eggplant may be harvested once the fruit has reached one-half to full size for a given variety. However, harvesting prior to full size may reduce potential yields. Harvest-ready fruit have a glossy appearance and are firm, without wrinkles. Harvest eggplant fruit before they become over mature. When over mature, the fruit is dull in color, seeds are hard and dark, and the flesh is characteristically spongy. Although the fruit can often be “snapped” from the plant, they should be clipped with a sharp knife or scissors to prevent damage. When harvesting, cut the stem approximately 1/4 inch from the fruit. Eggplant skin is tender and easily bruised, so handle with care. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Page 53

GARLIC AND ELEPHANT GARLIC Varieties1

AL

GARLIC

California Early 2 Creole Elephant

GA

KY

A

G

K

M

N

S

T

N

S

T

N

S

T

L A 3 4

Allium ampeloprasum Hardneck.

Secure a strain of softneck garlic from a local grower or gardener who has had success with fall-planted garlic. Unlike many strains sold commercially, such a strain should be well adapted to your area to overwinter. Avoid planting the Creole types of softneck garlic in the northern range (also called Early, Louisiana, White Mexican, etc.), because they are not very winter-hardy and do not keep well. Both the Italian and Creole types have a white outer skin covering the bulb, but the Italian type has a pink skin around each clove, whereas the skin around each Creole clove is white. Elephant-type garlic (milder than regular garlic and up to four times larger) may not yield very well when fall-planted in areas with severe cold or extensive freezing and thawing cycles, which cause heaving. Elephant garlic has performed well, however, in western North Carolina when it is well-hilled with soil or mulched with straw. The Italian and Elephant types take about 220 days to mature. Many of the most productive Italian garlic strains produce seed heads prior to harvest. Whether removed as they form or left intact, they have produced satisfactory yields. “Rocambole” (hardneck) types have coiled seedstalks. Despite this coiled appearance, these are perfectly normal and not the result of any poor cultural practice or herbicide contamination. Soil Fertility. Maintain a soil pH of 6.2 to 6.8. Fertilize according to soil test recommendations for garlic. In moderately fertile soils, apply about 75 pounds nitrogen (N) per acre, 150 pounds phosphate (P2O5) per acre and 150 pounds potash (K2O) per acre and disk about 6 inches deep before planting. When plants are about 6 inches tall (about March 15), topdress with 25 pounds per acre nitrogen and repeat the top dressing about May 1. Apply all top dressings to dry plants at midday to reduce chance of fertilizer burn. Because sulfur may be partially associated with the extent of pungency, you may wish to use ammonium sulfate for the last top dressing (May 1). If ammonium sulfate is used, make sure pH is 6.5 to 6.8. Garlic is commonly grown on muck, sandy, or fine textured soils as long as they are loose and friable. Use of organic matter or cover cropping is important. Planting. Garlic cloves should be planted during the fall Page 54

TN

A

New York White Neck 2 Softneck.

SC

L

Italian

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

NC

L

3

German Extra Hardy 4

2

MS

G

Elephant (Tahiti)

1

LA

because a chilling requirement must be met for good bulb development. Plant according to the times listed in the following table to ensure that good root systems are established prior to winter. Final bulb size is directly related to the size of the cloves that are planted. Avoid planting the long, slender cloves from the center of the bulb and cloves weighing less than 1 gram. GARLIC PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Planting Dates 9/15–11/10 10/1–11/30 9/15–11/10 10/1–11/30 9/1-10/1 9/10-10/15 9/15-11/1 9/1–11/30 9/1–11/30 9/15–10/30 9/15–11/10 8/15–10/15 10/1–11/30 8/15–10/15 9/1-11/1 9/15-11/1

Spacing. Garlic should be planted 4 by 4 inches apart in triple rows or multiple beds 16 to 18 inches apart. Between-row spacing depends on the equipment available. Clove tops should be covered with 1 to 1.5 inches of soil. The cloves must not be so deep that the soil will interfere with the swelling of the bulbs, nor so shallow that rain, heaving from alternate freezing and thawing, and birds will dislodge them. Vertical placement of cloves by hand gives optimal results. Cloves dropped into furrows are likely to lie in all positions and may produce plants with crooked necks.

INSECT MANAGEMENT Thrips. During hot, dry weather, the population of thrips increases following harvest of adjacent alfalfa or grain. Thrips could therefore present the most serious insect problem on garlic. (See “Onions” in the Insect Control section of this publicaVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

tion). Read and follow specific label directions for use on garlic; if not listed, do not use. Treat if thrips counts exceed an average of 5 thrips per plant. HARVESTING AND STORAGE Elephant garlic is ready for harvest in mid-May to mid-June—it must be harvested when around 30% of foliage is starting to yellow or the bulbs will split. When a few tops fall over, push all of them down and pull a sample. There are only about 10 days to 2 weeks for optimal garlic harvest. Before then, the garlic is unsegmented; much after that period the cloves can separate so widely that the outer sheath often splits and exposes part of the naked clove. Picked at the proper time, each clove should be fully segmented and yet fully covered by a tight outer skin. Run a cutter bar under the bulbs to cut the extensive root system and partially lift them. The bulbs are usually pulled and gathered into windrows. Tops are placed uppermost in the windrow to protect bulbs from the sun, and the garlic is left in the field for a week or more to dry or cure thoroughly. Curing can also be accomplished in a well-ventilated shed or barn. The bulbs must be thoroughly dried before being shipped or stored. Outdoor curing is not recommended where morning dew can keep it too damp. Bring in for drying immediately from field. Emphasize gentle handling. Cure for about 6 weeks. After curing garlic, discard diseased and damaged bulbs. Clean the remaining bulbs to remove the outer loose portions of the sheath, and trim the roots close to the bulb. Do not tap or bang bulbs together to remove soil. Braid or bunch together by the tops of the bulbs, or cut off the tops and roots and bag the bulbs like dry onions. When properly cured, garlic keeps well under a wide range of temperatures. Storage in open-mesh sacks in a dry, well-

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

ventilated storage room at 60° to 90°F is satisfactory. However, garlic is best stored under temperature and humidity conditions required for onions [32°to 35°F and 65% relative humidity]. Garlic cloves sprout quickly after bulbs have been stored at temperatures near 40°F, so avoid prolonged storage at this temperature. Garlic stored at above 70% relative humidity at any temperature will mold and begins to develop roots. Marketing. New growers should develop a local retail market (roadside stands, night markets, gourmet restaurants), wholesale shipper, or processing market before planting. The demand for garlic is increasing due to recent reports about the health and medical benefits of garlic. The main markets are New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and St. Louis. The markets of the northern and eastern United States will take the bulbs trimmed like dry onions and known as “loose garlic.” Frequently, 30 to 50 bulbs are tied in bunches. Bulbs should be graded into three sizes—large, medium, and small. Each string or bunch should contain bulbs of uniform size and of the same variety. First-class garlic bulbs must be clean and have unbroken outer sheaths. Many of the larger vegetable markets, such as the large chain stores, could retail garlic in the form of clean, uniform cloves, two dozen to a mesh bag. Processors are not particular about having the cloves enclosed in a neat sheath and occasionally accept sprouted bulbs. Garlic-growing can be very profitable when freshness is stressed and if the tops are braided, tied together, or placed into long, narrow, plastic mesh bags so they can be effectively displayed at roadside or night-market stands.

Page 55

GREENS: MUSTARD & TURNIP Varieties1

MUSTARD Florida Broadleaf Greenwave Red Giant Savannah Southern Giant Tendergreen 2

TURNIP GREENS Alamo All Top Just Right Purple Top White Globe Seven Top Shogoin Southern Green Top Star Topper Tokyo Cross

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

A A

G

K K

L L

M

N

S

T

A A A

G G G

K K K

L L L

M M M M

N N

S S S

T T T

A A A A A A A A

G G

K K

L L

K K

G G

K

L L L

S S S S S S S

T T

G G

N N N N N N

G

K

L L

M M M

M M

S S

T

T T

T T T

1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. 2 Mustard spinach.

Seeding. Greens can be succession seeded throughout the indicated times. The next seeding should be made when the previous crop is 50% emerged. Rows should be 12-24 inches apart and in-row spacing should be 1-2 inches.

MUSTARD AND TURNIP PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Page 56

Spring 2/1–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15-4/30 3/10-4/25 3/1-4/15 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–9/15 4/1-5/30 2/15-4/15

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 7/1-7/15 7/15-8/1 8/1-8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/15 NR 7/1-7/30 8/1-8/31

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Aphids: These insects can be serious pests of greens crops. Frequent examinations of the crops are necessary to avoid undetected infestations. Broad-spectrum insecticides used for caterpillar management can lead to aphid infestations. Caterpillars: Many of the same caterpillars that feed on the large cole crops (cabbage, collard, etc.) will feed on greens. Action thresholds for greens crops are currently lacking, but low levels of caterpillars can be tolerated during the early stages of growth. The use of BTs and other soft materials are encouraged in order to maintain natural enemy populations in the crops. Flea beetles: These small insects can be serious pests of greens crops. They are often associated with heavier soils and weedy areas. BTs are ineffective against beetle pests. These materials are generally ineffective against these insects although the new neonictinoid insecticides work well with little effect on natural enemies. Treatment should begin when the infestation is first noticed. Frequent use of broad-spectrum insecticides for flea beetle management often leads to resurgence of other pests.

HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

LEEKS Varieties1

AL

LEEKS

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

Albinstar

A

N

S

Alcazar

A

N

S

Alora

TN

G

Arena

1

GA

G

Catalina

A

N

Firena

A

N

S

Lancelot

A

N

S

Otina

A

N

S

Tadorna

A

N

S

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Transplants. Transplants are used for early spring plantings. For summer planting, sow in seed beds as indicated in following table. About 2 pounds of seed are required to provide enough plants to set an acre. Seed should be planted 1/3 to 1/2 inch deep 8 to 12 weeks before field setting. Plants will be ready to set in early August. Plug cells have worked well.

LEEK PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-6/15 3/25-7/1 3/15-7/15 NR 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 4/1-6/30 3/15-8/1

Fall 9/15-10/31 NR 9/15–10/31 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR

Field Spacing. Rows: 20 to 30 inches apart; plants: 4 inches apart in the row. Set plants in trenches 3 to 4 inches deep. Culture. Leeks grow slowly for the first 2 or 3 months. To

develop a long white stem, start to gradually fill in trenches and then hill soil around stems to 3 or 4 inches. There has been limited success growing leeks in Kentucky and Tennessee. They can be grown for direct market sales, but wholesale production is not currently recommended. At this time there are no varieties recommended for these states. HARVESTING AND STORAGE Spring-transplanted leeks are ready for harvest in July. Fallplanted leeks are ready for harvest by November can be overwintered. See Table 14 for postharvest information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 57

LETTUCE, ENDIVE, AND ESCAROLE Varieties1

LETTUCE Head 3SX-193 Crispino Desert Queen2 Great Lakes Ithaca Mighty Joe Mavrick Wallaby Green Leaf Grand Rapids Nevada Salad Bowl Sierra Slobolt Tango Tehama3 Tiarra Two Star (early) Red Leaf New Red Fire Red Express Red Head Red Prize Red Sails Red Salad Ruby Cos or Romaine 3SX-434 Green Forest Green Towers Hearts Delight Ideal Cos King Henry Musena3 Paramount Parris Island Cos Platium Red Eyes Cos Sunbelt2 Tall Guzmaine Butterhead Adriana Bennett Buttercrunch Ermosa Esmeralda Nancy ENDIVE Fresian Green Curled Rufflo Salad King

Page 58

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

N

L L

G

N N N N

L

A A A A A

G

K

G

K

K

L L L L

G

A A A

A

K

A

G

A

G

A A

A

A A A A

K

M

G

A

S

N N N

S

N N

T

S S S S S S

T T T

T

L

N

T

L L L

K

S

T

L

A

T

N

K

K K K K

S S S

L

L L

G G

G

M

K K

K

TN

N N N

N A

SC

N

L

A

NC

L

L

L L

N N N N N N

S S S S S S S

N

S S

N

N N N N N N

T T T

T

S S

S S S

N

S

N

S

T T T

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Varieties1

AL

ESCAROLE Aligia Elisa Florida Deep Heart Full Heart Full Heart 65 1 2 3

GA

KY

LA

MS

A

A A

K

L L

NC

SC

N

S S

N N

S S

TN

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Recommended for fall production only (bolting susceptible). Bolting-resistant.

Lettuce and endive are cool-season crops. Properly hardened lettuce transplants can tolerate temperatures as low as 20° to 25°F. Temperatures above 85°F for several days will cause seed stalk formation and bolting in lettuce. Temperatures below 70°F during the seedling stage promote premature stalk formation in endive and escarole. Seeding and Transplanting. Spring crop. Lettuce transplants

are started in frames or greenhouses. Seed for the lettuce crop is sown in heated greenhouses in November to February at the rate of 4 to 6 ounces of seed for 1 acre of plants. Direct-seeded lettuce is sown in prepared beds as early in the spring as the ground can be worked. Seed should be sown shallow—some of the seed will actually be uncovered and visible. Pelleted seed should be watered at night during high-temperature periods (soil temperatures above 80°F) until germination occurs. LETTUCE HEAD PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/1–4/10 3/1-8/10 2/1-4/15 3/15-5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 8/25–9/25 NR NR NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

LETTUCE LEAF AND BUTTERHEAD PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–4/15 4/15–5/30 2/1–4/15 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 3/15-4/30 2/1-4/15 2/1–4/20 3/1-8/25 2/1–4/15 3/1–5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15

Fall 8/1–9/30 8/1–10/15 8/1–8/30 8/1–10/15 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 8/1-9/30 8/1-10/15 8/25–10/1 NR 9/15–11/1 NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15

LETTUCE COS OR ROMAINE PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 NR 2/1-4/10 3/15-8/1 2/1-4/15 3/1-5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 NR 8/25-9/15 NR 9/15-11/1 NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15

Page 59

ENDIVE/ESCAROLE PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15-5/30 2/1-3/31 4/15-5/30 2/1-3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 NR 3/20-6/15 5/1-8/15 2/1-4/15 3/1-5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15

Fall 8/1-9/15 8/1-9/30 NR 8/1-9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 NR 8/1-9/15 NR 9/15-11/1 NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15

Mulching. Using polyethylene mulch can be very beneficial

for all types of lettuce and endive, in that the plastic reduces the amount of soil that gets inside the leaves. Use white plastic when air temperature exceeds 85°F. Most leaf lettuce varieties can be planted in 3 or 4 rows to the 30 inch bed top. In row spacing should be 9 to 12 inches and between row spacing should be 9 to 12 inches. Romaine types do best with 2 or 3 rows per bed and 12 to 15 inches in row spacing.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Keep lettuce fields isolated from endive and escarole for spray purposes. Thrips: Scout for thrips and begin treatments when observed. Do not produce vegetable transplants with bedding plants in the same greenhouse. Leafhopper: Control of leafhoppers will prevent spread of let-

tuce yellows. In the spring, spray when plants are one-half inch tall; repeat as needed. In the fall, spray seedlings 4-5 times at 5-day intervals. Corn Earworm (CEW). Note. Head lettuce seedlings, in the

7 to 18 leaf stage, are vulnerable to CEW attack in August to September. Control must be achieved before center leaves start to form a head (15 to 18 leaf stage). Tarnished Plant Bug. This insect can cause serious damage to the fall crop; it is usually numerous where weeds abound.

HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

SPACING Lettuce: Head lettuce is planted in rows 2 feet apart with plants 12 to 15 inches apart in the row. Leaf and Butterhead type lettuce are planted 3 to 4 rows per bed with beds spaced 66 to 72 inches on centers. Space plants 9 to 12 inches apart in the row. Use black plastic in spring and white plastic when mean daily temperature at planting is >85°F. Endive/Escarole: Plant three to four rows per bed and space

beds 66 to 72 inches on centers. Space plants 9 to 15 inches apart in the row.

Page 60

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

MELONS Varieties1

CANTALOUPES and MIXED MELONS Eastern Ambrosia 2, 3, 6 Ariel

Aphrodite 4,5,7,8,9

AL

G

Grand Slam

A

Jaipur 7,8,9

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

L

M

N

S

T

N

S

L

M

N

A A

Home Run 6,7,8,9

KY

A

Atlantis

Athena 4,5,8,9

GA

A

K K

G

K

N L

M

A K

T S

N

S

N

S

N

S

N

Magenta

T

T

N

Odyssey 2,5,8,9

A

Proteo

A

T N

Western Carribean Gold

N

Durango 6,10

Magellan 6,9 Magnum 45

6

Mission 6 Primo 4,5

Super 45

S

N N A

G

L

A A

6

M

T

M G

L

N

L

Honey Dew Honey Max Rocio 3,6,10

A

G

N

S

A

G

N

S

Santa Fe

Saturno 6,7,9

Silver Express 4,5,7,9

A

Temptation

N

S

N

S

N

S

K

T

T

Galia Elario

Galia 4

A

Golan 329 Solar Ace

A

N

S

N

S

N

S

N

S

T

Juan Canary Golden Beauty 229 6

A

Golden Lady

A

N

A

N

K

N

Sensation Premium Sonora 6,9

Sugar Nut SXM7057

T N

K

4,5,9

T

Oriental (Asian type) Sprite (Crisp flesh type)

A

Yellow Star

A

2

G

K

N

S

N

Ananas Duke 6 1 2

Abbreviations for state where recommended. Local markets only.

3 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance (DM).

A 4,5 Powdery Mildew race 1 or 2 tolerance/resistance (PM). 6 Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance (race specific).

7,8,9 Fusarium Wilt race 0,1, or 2 tolerance/resistance (FW).

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

N 10 Fusarium Wilt tolerance/resistance (race specific). 11 Orange flesh.

Page 61

Melon Types. Most growers and consumers are familiar with

cantaloupes and honey dew melons. Cantaloupes turn beige and slip from the vine when ripe and have an orange, sweet flesh. Cantaloupes are typically separated into two categories; eastern and western. Eastern types are sutured, larger and generally have a shorter shelf life (a few days) than western types. Many eastern types are only suited for local markets, while improved eastern varieties such as ‘Athena’ have a longer shelf life and can be shipped to more distant markets. Western types typically are not sutured, are round with a corky beige netting, and usually have a two-week shelf life. The fruit generally have smooth rinds with some corky striations becoming obvious as the fruit nears or becomes ripe. The fruit does not slip like a cantaloupe. Rind color can vary among varieties. Most are an off-white or beige but some have a yellow rind. Flesh color is typically light green, firm, and honey dews are sweeter than cantaloupes. Honey dew melons are typically grown in the southwestern United States in arid, dry climates. In the southeastern United States, honey dew fruit are more susceptible to cracking or splitting open. This is due to the uneven, high moisture conditions often encountered in the southeastern United States. Other specialty melons include Galia, Juan Canary, and oriental crisp-flesh types. The Galia type melon rind normally turns from green to golden yellow and will slip from the vine when ripe. The flesh is soft and white to light green, and the fruit produces a strong odor. The Juan Canary melons have a bright yellow rind when ripe but will not slip from the vine. Flesh color is white to very pale green. The oriental crisp-flesh melons have a crispy white flesh and have white and/or yellow rinds. Some types are more bland, while others are more sweet like the variety Sprite. Plant Production. Transplants should be grown in pots or cells

that provide a space of at least 1.5 inches by 1.5 inches for each plant. Smaller pots or cells will restrict root growth and provide less protection to the newly set transplant. If the seed is of good quality with a high germination test, one seed per pot is sufficient. One ounce of melon seed contains 950 to 1,250 seeds. The required amount of seed can then be estimated using Table 6 and 7 and knowing how many seeds make up an ounce of the desired variety. Planting and Spacing. Transplant or seed when daily mean

temperatures have reached 60°F. Temperatures below 45°F can stunt plant growth. Consult the following table for planting dates in your area. Early plantings should be protected from wind with row covers or rye strips. Plantings can continue until about 100 days before first frost. Normal in-row spacing for melons is 1.5 to 2 feet on plastic mulch and 2 to 4 feet on bare ground. Typically, an average of 7.5 to 15 ft should be allocated per plant on plastic mulch. On bare ground, 20 to 25 ft should suffice per plant. 2

2

MELON PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–6/15 3/1–6/30 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-6/15 5/10-7/1 4/25-7/15 4/1–6/30 3/15–6/30 4/1–4/10 3/1–3/15 4/15–5/15 5/15–7/31 3/15–5/15 4/15–6/5 5/5-6/15 4/15-6/1

Fall* 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/15 NR NR NR 7/1–7/31 7/1–8/15 NR NR 7/1–7/15 NR 7/1–7/30 NR NR NR

*Later plantings should be transplanted.

Drip Fertilization. Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and

in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N, P2O5 and K2O, (some soils will require 50 pounds per acre of K2O), then thoroughly incorporate into the soil. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the table below. On low to low-medium boron soils, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the muskmelon. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Melon* (low potassium soil) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 25.0 50.0 0-28 0.9 1.8 50.2 100.4 29-49 1.3 2.6 77.5 155.0 50-77 1.5 3.0 119.5 239.0 78-91 0.7 1.4 129.3 258.6

Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Melon* (high potassium soil) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 25.0 50.0 0-28 0.9 0.9 50.2 75.2 29-49 1.3 1.3 77.5 102.5 50-77 1.5 1.5 119.5 144.5 78-91 0.7 0.7 129.3 154.5 *Adjust based on tissue analysis.

Page 62

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Plastic Mulch. The use of plastic mulch is especially beneficial

when growing melons. It substantially reduces the amount of fruit rots and often results in a 100% increase in yields than if the crop is grown on bare ground. Black embossed plastic mulch is generally used to increase soil temperatures in the spring as well as provide weed control, and fertilization and irrigation efficiency. Fruit maturation is usually quickened with the use of plastic. White plastic can be used instead of black plastic mulch when air temperatures exceed 85F to reduce excessive heat that can occur under black plastic at the later planting dates. Spacing on plastic mulch is typically 5 to 6 feet between rows and 18 to 30 inches in-row. Marketable yields will generally range between 7,000 to 10,000 fruit per acre when grown on black plastic mulch. For Soil Strips between Rows of Plastic Mulch. Use the fol-

lowing land preparation, treatment, planting sequences, and herbicides labeled for melon, or crop injury may result. 1. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic mulch and drip irrigation (optional) before herbicide application. In some cases, overhead irrigation can be used if small holes are punched in the plastic. 2. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. Wet the outside 3 to 6 inches of plastic, but DO NOT APPLY HERBICIDE TO THE BED SURFACE OF THE PLASTIC. Herbicides may wash from the plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury. 3. Incorporate preemergence herbicide into the soil with 0.5 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING. 4. Apply nonselective herbicides in bands to the soil strips between plastic mulch before crop seedlings emerge. 5. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds. Note. All herbicide rate recommendations are made for spraying a broadcast acre (43,560 ft ). 2

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT

Seed Corn Maggot (SCM): Use insecticide treated seed or atplanting soil-insecticide treatments to avoid SCM in the early season. SCM problems subside with later plantings. Cucumber Beetle: Cucumber beetles transmit bacterial wilt, and most cultivars of muskmelons are highly susceptible to this disease. Also adult beetles can cause direct feeding injury to young plants. Foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively on the cotyledons and first true leaves. Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields. Treatments may be required until vining, at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections. An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use of Admire at planting. Note: Use of Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season. Pickleworm, Melonworm: Make one treatment prior to fruit set,

and then treat weekly. Aphids: Aphids can delay plant maturity. Thorough spray

coverage beneath leaves is important. For further information on aphid controls, see the preceding “Mulching” section. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed. Squash Bug: Begin treatments shortly after vining. Treat every

7 to 10 days or as needed. Leafhoppers: High numbers of potato leafhoppers cause leaf yellowing (chlorosis) known as hopper burn, which will result in yield loss.

POLLINATION Honeybees are important for pollination, high yields, and quality fruit. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until blooms have closed before application. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations. HARVESTING AND STORAGE Cantaloupes should be harvested at quarter-to half-slip for shipping. Healthy vines and leaves must be maintained until melons are mature to obtain high-quality melons. Harvest daily or twice daily in hot weather. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Many other types of melons do not slip and juding maturity can be difficult. Many melons will change thier water not color. It is critical to be familiar with the unique character of each melon.

Page 63

OKRA Varieties1 OKRA

Annie Oakley II

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Cajun Delight

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Clemson Spineless 80

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Emerald

A

G

N

S

N

S

Green's Best

L

Gold Coast

L

Lee

A

Louisiana Velvet

L

North and South 1

L

A

M

T

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Okra is a tropical annual which is widely adapted, however, it is very sensitive to frost and cold temperatures and should not be planted until soil has warmed in the spring.

development of side branches. Fall yields of cutback okra will often exceed that of spring crops or the yields of a crop that is not cut back.

Seeding and Spacing. Generally only one planting is made. For cooler areas, seed in the greenhouse in cells and transplant to the field through black plastic mulch. For dwarf varieties, space the rows about 3.5 feet apart; for medium and tall varieties, 4 to 4.5 feet apart. Drill seeds 1 to1.5 inch deep, with 3 or 4 seed per foot of row (5 to 7 pounds per acre). Thin plants when they are 5 inches high. Dwarf varieties should be spaced 12 to 15 inches apart in the row; plants of tall varieties should be spaced 18 to 24 inches apart.

Drip Fertilization. Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5 and

OKRA PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 5/1–7/15 3/15–4/30 5/15-7/1 5/10-7/15 4/20-8/1 4/15–5/31 3/15–5/31 4/15–6/1 5/1–5/30 5/25–7/31 5/1-6/30 5/15–7/15 5/15-6/15 4/15-6/15

Fall 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1–7/31 8/1–7/31 8/1–9/1 8/1–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1-7/31 7/25-8/25

Ratooning Okra: Producing a Fall Crop from a Spring Planting. Market price for okra typically declines sharply as

the summer progresses. After the market price drops, consider ratooning or cutting back your okra. Ratooning okra will allow the plants to rejuvenate and produce a crop in the fall, when okra prices are generally higher. Cut plants back using a mower, leaving 6 to 12 inches of each plant above the ground. Re-fertilize with 15-0-14, 8-0-24, or 13-0-44 to encourage re-growth and the Page 64

in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N, P2O5 and K2O, (some soils will require 50 pounds per acre of K2O), then thoroughly incorporate into the soil. Apply 1 to 2 pound per acre of actual boron. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system, the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the tables below. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the okra. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Okra* (low potassium soil) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 25.0 50.0 0-14 0.9 1.8 50.2 100.4 15-28 1.3 2.6 77.5 155.0 29-84 1.5 3.0 119.5 239.0 85-91 0.7 1.4 129.3 258.6

Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Okra* (high potassium soil) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 25.0 50.0 0-14 0.9 0.9 50.2 75.2 15-28 1.3 1.3 77.5 102.5 29-84 1.5 1.5 119.5 144.5 85-91 0.7 0.7 129.3 154.5 * Adjust based on tissue analysis.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Plastic Mulching. Polyethylene (black plastic) mulch can offer

growers several advantages. Drip irrigation systems must be used with plastic mulch. On plastic mulch, transplant at the three-to four-leaf stage into staggered double rows spaced 15 to 18 inches apart between the double rows. Place plants 12 inches apart.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

HARVESTING AND STORAGE An okra pod usually reaches harvesting maturity 4 to 6 days after the flower opens. The pods are 3 to 3.5 inches long at this stage and are tender and free of fiber. Pick pods at least every second day to avoid the development of large, undesireable pods. Okra should be kept at temperatures between 50° to 55°F and of 85% to 90% relative humidity. Okra pods are subject to chilling injury below 50°F.

Page 65

ONIONS AND GREEN ONIONS Varieties1

GREEN ONIONS

Beltsville Bunching 2

AL

GA

KY

A

Crystal Wax

MS

NC

SC

M

N

S

Evergreen Bunching 2

K A

L

S

L

S

K

M

N

Parade

S

White Spear

L

ONIONS (Short Day) Caramelo

G**

Century

G**

Georgia Boy

G**

Golden Eye

S T

L

G** A

G**

L

Honeybee

G**

Honeycomb

G**

Miss Megan

G**

Mr. Buck

G**

Nirvana

G**

L

Ohooppee Sweet

G**

L

A

G**

Sweet Caroline

G**

Sweet Harvest

G**

Sweet Jasper

G**

Sweet Melody

G**

S

Texas Early Grano 502

L

Yellow

A

L

N

S

N

Candy

K

Expression

K

L

T T

Hi Ball

N

Juno

3

S

L

Buffalo

2

M

N

L

ONIONS (Intermediate Day)

1

M

G**

Granex 3

N

Superstar (white)

K

Sweet Sandwich

K

Tough Ball

S

L

L

White Granex 3

N

S

Sweet Vidalia Texas Grano 1015Y

S

G**

SS 2005

WI-129

N

L

Primavera Savannah Sweet

S S

Southport 2

Granex 33

TN

L

Emerald Isle

Ishikura Long

LA

L

N N N

Abbreviations for state where recommended. Bulbing type. Also designates a "type" of onion and performance may vary.

** Georgia Growers note: To be marketed as “Vidalia,” varieties must be on the Georgia Department of Agriculture’s “Recommended Vidalia Onion List” and grown in the Vidalia area. All of these varieties can be used for green onions.

Page 66

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Planting and Seeding Dates. In the northern range of the

Southeast for dry bulb onions, sets and seed can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring. Plant transplants for bulb onions as indicated in the following table. Seed for bunching onions can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring and successive plantings can be made throughout the summer in the cooler parts of the Southeast. On-farm transplant production can be performed in most conditions for dry bulb onion production. In the northern range of the Southeast it may be preferable to purchase transplants. Transplant production should begin by seeding plantbeds from late August to the end of September. A common method of producing transplants is to seed in high density plantings with 30-70 seed per linear foot. Four to five rows are planted 12-14 in. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers. For dry bulb onion production from transplants follow planting dates recommended in the following table. Onion production from sets has not worked as well because it is difficult to mechanically orient the sets with the growing point up. Hand planting sets, however, works well for smaller operations. Direct seeding dry bulb onions can save money on labor and materials. See seeding dates in table below. It is recommended that coated or encrusted seed be used with a vacuum planter to insure good seed singulation. It is critical that the beds be properly prepared without any previous plant debris. Preplant fertilizer application of 1/5 to 1/4 of required amount with proper bed moisture is recommended. Care should be taken so that the seed is singulating properly, soil is not clogging the seeder, and planting depth is correct (~ 0.25 in.). Watering is required to insure germination and emergence. It may be necessary to apply water more than once a day during periods of hot, dry weather. Seeding dates for green onions are listed in the table below. Green onions during winter production will require 12-14 weeks. Spring production may be shorter. Green onions can also be produced from transplants. ONION DIRECT SEED PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Green Onions NR 8/1–4/30 NR 8/15–10/15 9/15–10/31 10/1–10/31 NR 10/15–2/15 8/1–6/15 4/1–8/15 3/15–7/30 2/15–10/15 9/1-9/30 NR

Onions (dry) NR 9/1–10/15 NR 10/5–10/25 9/15–10/31 10/1–10/31 NR NR 9/15–10/31 9/1–9/30 9/15–11/15 NR NR NR

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

ONION TRANSPLANTS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Onions (dry) NR 11/1–2/15 NR 11/1–2/15 4/1-6/15 3/25-7/1 3/15-7/15 12/15–1/31 12/15–1/31 12/15–3/1 10/1–2/15 10/1–3/1 9/15–10/15 10/1–11/15 9/15–10/15 9/15/10/15 3/1-3/30

Spacing. A typical planting arrangement for dry bulb onions is to plant four rows, 12-14 in. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers. In-row spacing should be 4-6 inches. Row spacing up to 24 in. can be used. For direct seeded onions, set the planter to sow seed with a 3-4 in. in-row spacing. For green onions, space rows 12 to 16 in. apart and space seed 0.75 to 1.5 inches apart (2-6 pounds per acre). A vacuum planter with a double row planter or a scatter shoe will work well. Seed depth should be 0.25-0.5 inches. Place transplants or sets 1.5 to 2.5 inches deep. Cultivation. For bunching onions, hill with 1 to 2 inches of soil to ensure white base.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT Soilborne pests are often controlled with a preplant application of a soil insecticide. Seedcorn Maggot: An early season problem that is common following winter injury to plants or in fields where planting occurs soon after a cover crop has been plowed under. Cutworms: See cutworm section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and Control. Thrips: Use a threshold of 5 thrips per plant.

HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

Page 67

PARSLEY AND CILANTRO Varieties1

AL

GA

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

Banquet

A

G

K

L

M

N

S

T

Forest Green

A

N

S

PARSLEY Curly Leaf

L

Garland

S

Moss Curled

A

N

S

Starke

A

N

S

Flat Leaf Dark Green Italian

A

L

Giant of Italy

A

L

Plain Italian Green

A

G

Jantar Longstanding

A

G

Santo

A

CILANTRO

1

K

S N

L

M

N

S

L

M

N

S

T

N

S

T

L

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Parsley is a biennial grown as an annual. There are two varietal types of parsley: flat-leaf and curled leaf. Flat leaf parsley tends to be more aromatic than the curled leaf and is used for flavoring in cooking. Curled leaf parsley is more attractive and is primarily used as a garnish. Seeding and Spacing. Seed is sown 1/3 to 1/2 inches deep in a well-prepared seed bed Seeding rates are from 16 to 24 pounds per acre for parsley and 15 to 50 pounds per acre for cilantro. Spacing between single rows is 15 to 18 inches. Parsley and cilantro can be precision seeded into raised beds with 3 to 4 rows per bed. Final in-row spacing should be 6 to 8 inches for parsley and 2 to 5 inches for cilantro. Parsley seed is slow to germinate. If seed is more than 1 year old, have germination checked and adjust seeding rate accordingly.

PARSLEY/CILANTRO PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Page 68

Spring 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 5/10-7/10 5/1-7/20 4/15-7/1 2/15–4/15 2/1–4/15 NR 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 NR NR 4/1-8/1 4/1-5/30

Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/31 9/15–10/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/30 NR 9/1–11/15 8/15–9/30 NR 8/1-9/1

Cultivation. Parsley and cilantro grow best in a well-drained, organic loam soil, soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Cilantro is often seeded weekly to supply a continuous crop throughout the summer. Setting of transplants is usually not economical for either crop. Parsley and cilantro require about 100 pounds N per acre, which should be split-applied throughout the season. These crops should be irrigated. Pest Control. There are few, if any, agricultural chemicals cleared for use on parsley and cilantro. Weed control is important and can best be obtained by using black plastic mulch and cultivation. Parsley and cilantro are prone to leaf blights, leaf spots, and mildews. If there are any approved fungicides they should be sprayed as soon as symptoms appear. Cultural controls include use of drip irrigation, crop rotation, and limited movement through the fields during wet conditions. Root and crown rot of parsley is best controlled by a two-year crop rotation with non-susceptible plants. Harvesting and Storage. Parsley and cilantro are usually harvested by hand and bunched with rubber bands or twist ties in the field. Store at 32° F with high humidity. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

PARSNIP Varieties1 PARSNIP

All American

AL

GA

A

G

Harris Model

K

Javelin 1

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

N

S

N

S

N

S

TN

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Seeding and Spacing. Seed as indicated in the following table.

The seeds germinate slowly. Never use seed that is more than 1 year old. Seed 3 to 5 pounds per acre at a depth of 1/4 to 3/8 inch in rows 18 to 30 inches apart. Adjust seeder to give 8 to 10 plants per foot of row. Thin seedlings to 2 to 4 inches apart in the row. PARSNIP PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 4/1–6/1 3/20–6/15 3/10–7/1 NR 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 4/1–6/1 3/10–7/1

Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–10/15 7/15–9/30 NR NR

Harvesting and Storage. Parsnips may be dug, topped, and

stored at 32°F at 90% to 95% relative humidity. Storage can be up to 6 months. Parsnips left in the ground over winter should be removed before growth starts in the spring. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 69

ENGLISH/GARDEN PEAS Varieties1

ENGLISH/GARDEN PEAS

AL

Dual

Green Arrow

GA

KY

LA

A

G

K

G

L

A

G

Sparkle Blunt

K

Sugar Ann 3

G

K

G

K

A A

G

K

Tall Telephone (Alderman) 1 2 3

L

M

N

M

N

K

Spring

Sugar Snap 3

N

L

Novella

Sugar Bon 3

NC

SC

TN

G

Knight Oregon Sugar Pod II 2,3

MS

S

T

S

T

S

T

N N

S

T

L

N

S

T

L

N

L

N

S

T

L

M

N

Abbreviations for state where recommended. Flat podded - snow pea. Edible Pod Type.

Garden peas thrive in cool weather and tolerate frost. Planting garden peas for processing is based on the heat-unit theory. First plantings can be made as soon as the soil can be tilled in the spring. Inoculation of seed enhances early nodule formation. Seed Treatment. Use seed already treated with an approved

seed treatment, or treat seed with a slurry or dust that contains an approved fungicide. Seeding and Spacing. For garden peas and processing peas,

plant 3-4 seeds per foot in rows 6-8 inches apart, requiring seed 80-120 pounds per acre in 30 inch rows. Seed at a depth of no more than 1 inch unless soil is dry. Use press wheel drill or seeder to firm seed into soil. Harvesting and Storage. See Table 14 for further postharvest

information.

Page 70

ENGLISH/GARDEN PEAS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15-4/15 3/1-4/1 2/20-3/20 11/15–2/1 11/15–2/1 4/10-4/25 3/25-4/5 2/15–4/15 4/1–6/15 2/1–3/15 3/1–4/15 3/15-4/30 2/15-3/30

Fall 8/1–8/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–8/31 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–11/30 8/15–10/30 NR NR

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

SOUTHERN PEAS Varieties1

SOUTHERN PEAS Blackeye Bettergro Blackeye 2,4 California Blackeye #5

2,5

AL

GA

A

G

A

G

Magnolia Blackeye 5

A

Queen Anne 2,5

A

G

KY

LA

MS

NC

SC

TN

S N K

L

M

L

M

N

L

M

N

S T

Pinkeyes A

Coronet 2,5

K

Mississippi Pinkeye 2,4 Pinkeye Purple Hull 4

G

L

N

A

G

L

M

N

QuickPick Pinkeye 2,5

A

G

L

M

N

Texas Pinkeye

A

Top Pick Pinkeye 2

A

Pinkeye Purple Hull - BVR

4

T S

T T

S

T

L G

L

Cream Big Boy (cream/browneye) 5

S L

Elite 2,5 Mississippi Cream

L

2,5

T M S

Tender Cream 2,5 Texas Cream 8

G

Texas Cream 12

A

G

Top Pick Cream

A

G

White Acre-BVR

A

G

M

S

T

L

Crowders Clemson Purple

N

S

Colossus 80 2,5

N

S

Dixie Lee

L

Hercules

A

Knuckle Purple Hull Mississippi Purple 3 Mississippi Shipper

2,3

Mississippi Silver 3

N

G

N

S

G

N

S

A

G

A

G

A

G

K K

Zipper Cream 4 1 2

Abbreviations for state where recommended. Suitable for mechanical harvest.

3 4

A

G

A

G

Semi-vining.

5

T

L

M

N

S

L

M

N

S

L

M

N

S

T

S

T

S

T

Purple Tip Crowder Top Pick Crowder

T

L

N

L

N

T

Bush.

Vining.

Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times and moved to Africa, then to America. In India, Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called “Field peas”, “Crowder peas”, “Cowpeas” and “blackeyes”, but Southern peas is the preferred name. Southern peas require relatively warms soils for good germination. Seeding and Spacing. Sow when soil temperature reaches

60°F and continue sowing until 80 days before fall frost. Seeding too early causes poor stands and you may need to replant. Bush types should be seeded 4 to 6 per foot or 30 to 50 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

pounds of seed per acre. Vining types should be seeded 1 to 2 per foot or 20 to 30 pounds of seed per acre. Plant seeds 3/4 to 1 1/4 inch deep in rows spaced 20 to 42 inches apart depending on cultivation requirements. Fertility. Most soils will produce a good crop, but medium fertility with pH of 5.8 to 6.5 is desirable. High fertility produces excessive vine growth and poor yields. Inoculants of specific N fixing bacteria may increase yield especially in soils where Southern peas have not been grown. Crop rotation or fumigation is important for nematode control. Page 71

Insect Management. Cowpea Curculio: At first bloom, make

three insecticides applications at five-day intervals for curculio control. Harvesting and Storage. Depending on variety and weather, harvest will begin 65 to 80 days after seeding and continue for 3 to 5 weeks. Begin harvest when a few pods are beginning to change color and harvest only pods with well formed peas. This is the best stage for shelling and eating. Southern peas are sold in bushel hampers or mesh bags. Do not use burlap sacks because they are not properly ventilated. Southern peas weigh 22 to 30 pounds per bushel. One person can harvest 12 to 20 bushels per day if yields are average. Average production is 60 to 200 bushels per acre. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. SOUTHERN PEAS PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Page 72

Spring 4/15–7/31 3/15–6/15 5/15–7/15 3/15–5/15 5/10-6/15 5/5-7/1 4/20-7/15 4/15–7/31 4/1–5/31 4/15–7/15 3/15–6/15 3/25–6/15 4/15–7/15 4/1–6/15 4/15-7/15 5/10-7/15 4/15-7/31

Fall NR 7/15–8/30 NR 7/15–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1–7/31 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 NR 7/15–8/1 NR NR NR

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

PEPPERS Varieties1

AL

Jupiter

A

PEPPER (open pollinated) Bell Capistrano

GA

KY

A

LA

L

L

MS

M

M

NC

N

SC

S

TN

N

S

T

N

S

T

S

T

Frying type Cubanelle

A

G

K

Early Sweet Banana

A

G

K

Sweet Banana

A

G

K

A

G

K

L

Hot type Anaheim

Carolina Cayenne

Cayenne L. Red Thick Charleston Hot 10 Habañero

Hungarian Wax Jalapeño M

G

A

G

4,8

A

G

Enterprise

A

G

Heritage 3

King Arthur

Magico 3

Orobelle 7

Patriot 3, 8 Plato 3

Polaris 8

Purple Bell

A

G

A A

G

A

G

A

G

A

G

A

G

A

G

A

G

A

Paladin 2

G

9

Revolution

Sirius 3,8

A

Summer Gold 7

A

Stilleto 3

Tequila 9

Valencia 7

X3R Aladdin 8

X3R Aristotle 2, 8

X3R Red Knight 8 X3R Wizard 8

K K

L

L L L

M

M

M

L

L

K

L

K

L

L

K

L

K

L

K K K

M

A

G

K

G

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

6

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus tolerance/resistance (TSWV).

8

Tomato Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (ToMV).

10

Phytophthora Root Rot tolerance.

7

Potato Virus Y tolerance/resistance (PVY).

9

K

N

S

L

T

N

S

T

N

S

N

N

N

M

N

S S

N N

M L

K

S

S

S

S

N

N

T

T

T T T

S

N

S

N

S

N

S

N

T

T

S

N

N

T

T

N N

M

T

S

N

M

K

S

N

M

L

G

N

N

L

A

A

S

N

K K

N

N

K

A

Camelot X3R 8

Excursion II 3

5

A

Tula

Declaration 2, 3, 5, 8

4

G G

Brigadier

3

A A

PEPPER (Hybrid) Bell Alliance 2,4,8

2

G

Long Thin Cayenne Surefire

1

L A

N

L`

S

T T

T T

Tobacco Etch Virus tolerance/resistance (TEV). Mature yellow fruit or mature orange fruit.

Bacterial Leaf Spot resistance for races 1, 2 and 3. Mature purple fruit.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Nematode resistance (N).

Page 73

Varieties1

AL

GA

Aruba

A

G

KY

LA

K

L

MS

NC

SC

TN

N

S

T

N

S

PEPPER (Hybrid) (con't) Frying type Banana Supreme

A

G

Biscayne

A

G

Gypsy

A

G

Hy-Fry

A

Key Largo

A

Purple Beauty 9

K

M

N

M

N

G

N

A

M

S

N

Ancho Ancho 101

A

San Martin

A

San Juan Tiburon

A

G

N

K

M

N

T

T

Hot type Agri Set 4108 8

A

Cayar

A

Compadre 4, 5

A

Anaheim Conchos Delicias

L

G

Grande

1 2 3 4 5

K K

G

A

G

Mitla

A

G

Super Cayenne 10

A

Nazas (Serrano) Tormenta 4, 6, 8

A

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

6

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus tolerance/resistance (TSWV).

8

Tomato Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (ToMV).

10

Phytophthora Root Rot tolerance.

7

Potato Virus Y tolerance/resistance (PVY).

9

K

G

Ixtapa

Mesilla 4, 6

L

G

El Rey

Inferno

T

L

L

L

L

L

L

M

M M

L

N

T

T

N

T

N

S

N

S

N

T

T

Tobacco Etch Virus tolerance/resistance (TEV). Mature yellow fruit or mature orange fruit.

Bacterial Leaf Spot resistance for races 1, 2 and 3. Mature purple fruit.

Peppers are a warm-season crop that grow best at temperatures of 70° to 75°F. This crop is sensitive to temperature extremes. Poor fruit set and blossom drop can be expected when night temperatures drop below 60° or day temperatures rise above 85°F. Seed Treatment. If seed is not treated in order to minimize the

Nematode resistance (N).

Planting and Spacing. Space rows 4 to 5 feet apart. Set plants

12 to 18 inches apart in double rows. Select fields with good drainage. Plant on raised, dome-shaped beds to aid in disease control. To minimize sunscald when growing pepper on sandy soils and on plastic mulch without drip irrigation, plant varieties that have excellent foliage.

occurrence of bacterial leaf spot, dip seed in a solution containing 1 quart of household bleach and 4 quarts of water plus 1 teaspoon of surfactant for 15 minutes. Provide constant agitation. Use at the rate of 1 gallon of solution per pound of seed. Prepare a fresh solution for each batch of seed. Wash seed in running water for 5 minutes and dry seed thoroughly. Plant seed soon after treatment.

Page 74

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

PEPPER PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 5/15–6/30 3/1–4/30 5/15–6/30 3/1–4/30 5/20-6/15 5/10-7/1 5/1-7/15 4/1–5/15 3/1–5/15 4/20–6/30 3/1–4/30 4/15–5/10 5/15–7/15 4/1–5/15 5/1–6/30 5/15-7/1 4/20-6/30

Fall NR 7/15–8/30 NR 7/15–8/30 NR NR NR 6/15–7/31 6/15–7/31 NR 8/1–8/15 8/1–8/15 NR 7/10–8/1 NR NR NR

Drip Fertilization. Before mulching, adjust soil pH to 6.5, and

in the absence of a soil test, apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N, P2O5 and K2O, (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K2O) then thoroughly incorpotrate into the soil. After transplanting the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated following that described in the following table. On soils testing low-medium for boron, also include 0.5 pound per acre of actual boron. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after transplanting the peppers. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Pepper* (low soil potassium) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 50.0 100.0 0–14 0.5 0.5 57.0 107.0 15–28 0.7 1.4 66.8 126.6 29–42 1.0 2.0 80.8 154.6 43–56 1.5 3.0 101.8 196.6 57–98 1.8 3.6 177.4 347.8

Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Pepper* (high soil potassium) Days after Daily Daily Cumulative planting nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– Preplant 50.0 100.0 0–14 0.5 0.5 57.0 107.0 15–28 0.7 0.7 66.8 116.8 29–42 1.0 1.0 80.8 130.8 43–56 1.5 1.5 101.8 151.8 57–98 1.8 1.8 177.4 227.4

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT

Green Peach and Melon Aphid. Note: For best green peach aphid control during periods of drought, apply insecticide 2 to 3 days after irrigation. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is critical. Pepper Maggot: Pepper maggot flies are active from June 1 to

mid-August. Pepper Weevil (PW): PW is a pest occasionally imported on

older transplants or transplants with flowers or fruit. European Corn Borer (ECB): European Corn Borer (ECB). The use of pheromone insect traps is recommended, treat when more than ten moths per trap per week are found. Follow table in Insect Control section of this publication. Nematode Management. Use nematicides listed in the

“Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. Consult label before use. VIRUSES

Aphid-transmitted Viruses (TMV, PVX, CMV, TEV, PVY): Use

tolerant or resistant varieties to control these viruses when available and provided that the fruit quality is consistent with market demands. Use these varieties in areas where these viruses have been prevalent or when high aphid pressure is expected. Generally, these viruses cannot be adequately controlled with insecticide applications, but symptom expression can be delayed through their use combined with the use of reflective mulches.. Because aphids transmit these virus, growers may wish to use yellow trap pans containing water to determine when mass flights of winged aphids occur. Thrips-transmitted virus (Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, TSWV):

Use tolerant or resistant varieties. TSWV can be severe on peppers during both greenhouse production of transplants and during field production of the crop. The virus is spread to peppers by thrips. During transplant production, thrips transmit the virus from infected ornamental plants (flowers). Be sure not to grow any ornamental bedding plants in the same greenhouse as pepper transplants. Monitor greenhouses and scout fields for thrips. Begin an insecticide program BEFORE a problem is observed. HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

* Adjust for soil and tissue analysis

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Page 75

IRISH POTATOES Varieties1

POTATOES Atlantic

AL

GA

A

G

KY

LA

MS

L

M

Coastal Chip Dark Red Norland

A

K

L

NC

SC

N

S

N

S

N

S

Harley Blackwell

N

Katahdin

N

S

N

S

Kennebec

G

K

L

La Chipper La Rouge Mountain Rose

TN

T

T

L A

3

L

Norchip

N

K

Purple Majesty 2 Red LaSoda

A

L

M

T

N

S

N

S

N

S

G

K

N

S

Red Pontiac

G

K

N

S

T

Superior

G

K

N

G

K

N

S

T

French Fingerling

G

K

N

S

T

Russian Banana

G

K

N

S

T

Vivaldi

N

Yukon Gold

A

M

Fingerling Types

1

2

Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Purple flesh.

Planting and Spacing. The recommended planting dates for potatoes are in the following table.

IRISH POTATO PLANTING DATES AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West

Spring 2/15–4/30 1/15–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/20-6/15 3/15-7/1 3/15-7/15 1/15–2/28 1/15–2/28 1/20–3/15 1/20–3/1 2/15–3/31 4/1–6/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/20-4/30 2/15-3/31

Fall NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 7/15-9/1 7/1-9/15 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR

Space seed 7 to 12 inches apart in 34- or 36- inch rows. Use closer spacing for large, cut seed pieces and wider spacing for whole (B-size) seed. Use close spacing for potatoes being marketed in 5- and 10-pound consumer packs and for Katahdin and Kennebec, which tend to set few tubers and produce oversize tubers. Page 76

3

Red flesh.

Seed-Piece Treatment. Use certified seed. Warm potato seed

(65°F to 70°F) for a period of 2 to 3 weeks before planting to encourage rapid emergence. Do not use seed pieces that weigh less than 1.5 oz each. Plant seed pieces immediately after cutting or store under conditions suitable for rapid healing of the cut surfaces (60° to 70°F plus high humidity). Dust seed pieces immediately after cutting with fungicide. Some fungicide seedpiece treatments are formulated with fir or alder bark. Bark formulations have been effective treatments to reduce seed piece decay.

SPECIAL NOTES FOR PEST MANAGEMENT INSECT MANAGEMENT

Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB): Rotation to nonsolanaceous

crops (crops other than potato, tomato, eggplant, and pepper) is extremely important in reducing CPB problems. The further fields can be planted from last year’s solanaceous crop, the more beneficial it will be in reducing CPB problems. Avoid the application of late-season sprays to prevent the buildup of insecticide-resistant beetles. Beginning at plant emergence, sample fields weekly for CPB to determine the need to spray. Select at least 10 sites per field along a V- or W-shaped path throughout the field. At each site, select one stem from each of five adjacent plants and count and record all adults, large larvae (more than half-grown), and small larvae (less than half-grown). As a general guideline, if more Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

than 25 adults or 75 large larvae or 200 small larvae are counted per 50 stems, a treatment is recommended. The amount of yield loss as a result of CPB feeding depends on the age of the potato plant. The Superior variety (short season) cannot compensate for early season defoliation by overwintered beetles, but, during the last 30 days of the season, Superior can withstand up to 50% defoliation without yield loss. Note: Several insecticides may no longer be effective in certain areas due to CPB resistance. Alternate insecticide classes from one year to the next to avoid resistance. Check with the county Extension agent in your area for the most effective control. Flea Beetle (FB), Leafhoppers: Treatment is suggested if

leafhopper counts exceed three adults per sweep or one nymph per 10 leaves. Use of Admire or Platinum at planting will also control flea beetles, leafhoppers, aphids and whiteflies. European Corn Borer (ECB): Continued treatment for ECB may significantly increase CPB insecticide resistance. However, for proper timing of ECB sprays, consult the county Extension agent and/or area pest management information.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2011

Potato Aphid (PA), Green Peach Aphid (GPA): Insecticide treatments are recommended when aphid counts exceed two per leaf prior to bloom, four aphids per leaf during bloom, and 10 aphids per leaf within two weeks of vine kill. Potato Tuberworm: Treat when foliage injury is first noted. Potato tuberworms are primarily a problem with late potatoes, in cull piles, or potatoes in storage. Sanitation is very important. Cutworms: See “Cutworms” section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and Control. Cutworms are especially troublesome to tubers where soil cracking occurs. Variegated cutworms feed on lower leaves and petioles.

HARVESTING AND STORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.

Page 77

PUMPKINS AND WINTER SQUASH Varieties1

PUMPKIN Miniature

[PDF] HANDBOOK VEGETABLE CROP SOUTHEASTERN U.S. Handbook Senior Editor: J.M. Kemble, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. Associate Editors: - Free Download PDF (2024)

FAQs

What is the concept of vegetables in PDF? ›

Vegetables are defined as the fresh parts of plants which, either raw, cooked, canned or processed in some other way, provide suitable human nutrition. Fruits of perennial trees are not considered to be vegetables. Ripe seeds are also excluded (peas, beans, cereal grains, etc.).

What are the different types of vegetable products? ›

The root vegetables include beets, carrots, radishes, sweet potatoes, and turnips. Stem vegetables include asparagus and kohlrabi. Among the edible tubers, or underground stems, are potatoes. The leaf and leafstalk vegetables include brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, lettuce, rhubarb, and spinach.

What is a vegetable in biology? ›

A vegetable is the edible portion of a plant. Vegetables are usually grouped according to the portion of the plant that is eaten such as leaves (lettuce), stem (celery), roots (carrot), tubers (potato), bulbs (onion) and flowers (broccoli). A fruit is the mature ovary of a plant.

Why is a banana a berry? ›

It turns out berry is actually a botanical term, not a common English one. Blackberries, mulberries, and raspberries are not berries at all, but bananas, pumpkins, avocados and cucumbers are. So what makes a berry? Well, a berry has seeds and pulp (properly called “pericarp”) that develop from the ovary of a flower.

What are the 100 vegetable names? ›

All Vegetable Names with Examples Based on Types
Flower vegetablesLeafy vegetablesRoot Vegetables
CauliflowerCabbageBeetroot
BroccoliArugulaCarrot
ArtichokeSpinachTurnip
Banana flowerCeleryRadish
5 more rows
Jun 18, 2024

What are 4 ways to process vegetables? ›

Processing of vegetables

Generally, the techniques include blanching, dehydrating, canning, freezing, fermenting and pickling, and irradiating.

How to produce organic vegetables? ›

How to Start an Organic Vegetable Garden
  1. Start With Organic Garden Soil and Mulch.
  2. Use an Organic Garden Fertilizer.
  3. Seedling Shopping Tips.
  4. Organic Raised Beds.
  5. Practice Crop Rotation.
  6. How to Pick Weeds.
  7. Keep Your Garden Clean.
  8. Water Wisely and Give Plants Air.
Jan 26, 2024

What is growth analysis and its importance in vegetable production? ›

Growth analysis is a mathematical expression of environmental effects on crop growth, and uses parameters like relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), crop growth rate (CGR), and leaf area index (LAI) to quantify effects on dry matter accumulation and partitioning.

Which vegetable is called the king of vegetables? ›

The brinjal was given the title of King of Vegetables because of its astonishingly awesome purple covering, and also the juicy and rich nutritional values in them. Eggplant, aubergine, and brinjal are members of the Solanaceae family.

What are the 12 cruciferous vegetables? ›

The cruciferous family includes: bok choy, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Collard/spring greens, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, mustard, radish, rocket, turnip, watercress and wasabi. Sometimes this vegetable family is also called brassicas.

Is bok choy a nightshade vegetable? ›

Bok choy is a cruciferous vegetable, a category that also includes broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage, among others.

What does "vegetable" mean in slang? ›

Informal. a person who is so severely impaired mentally or physically as to be largely incapable of conscious responses or activity. a dull, spiritless, and uninteresting person.

Are strawberries and bananas related? ›

Despite its name, the strawberry isn't a true berry. Neither is the raspberry or the blackberry. But the banana is a berry, scientifically speaking, as are eggplants, grapes and oranges.

What is the meaning of crudite? ›

cru·​di·​tés ˌkrü-di-ˈtā krᵫ-dē-ˈtā : pieces of raw vegetables (such as celery or carrot sticks) served as an hors d'oeuvre often with a dip.

What is the difference between fruits and vegetables in a PDF? ›

However, the important distinction between fruit and vegetables has come to be made on usage basis. Those plant items that are generally eaten with the main course of a meal are considered to be vegetables. Those that are commonly eaten as dessert are considered as fruits.

What are the explanation of the vegetables? ›

More specifically, a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of which is used for food", a secondary meaning then being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food that is not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal".

What is the doctrine of vegetables? ›

It's called the Doctrine of Signatures - a philosophy shared by herbalists and nutritionists that states that herbs, plants and vegetables resemble the various parts of the body they heal.

What are the concepts of fruits and vegetables? ›

Fruits and vegetables comprise different parts of the plants from which they grow. Fruits come from the flowering part of a plant and contain seeds. In contrast, vegetables are the edible parts of a plant, such as the leaves, stem, roots, and bulbs.

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